Captain James Cook and also Preventive Health care

What have we learned in the past 250 years? by Earl chef July 2010


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The HMB Endeavour replica
I was newly listening come a discussion about the plans because that traveling come the planet Mars v all the challenges and also dangers that will be confronted by these space travelers. Interestingly, the 18th century explorations the Capt. James chef are being supplied as instances of exactly how to prepare because that such dangerous and also long missions into the unknown. That began my study into just how Capt. Cook prepared for and also conducted his missions, especially, just how he handle the health care needs that his crew and also I wondered just how relevant his approaches of then were today?

Captain James chef was one of the world"s greatest explorers and also discovered an ext of the planet than any other human in history. He was skilled as a navigator, astronomer and sailor. Still, Capt. Chef felt that his greatest success were in avoiding the an illness scurvy and also not losing any type of men to the condition on his epic circumnavigations of the globe. (1)

How carry out you produce the healthiest included environment that will maintain and preserve the wellness of your crew for prolonged periods of time? In Capt. Cook"s case, a trip about the human being took 3 years. Is over there a solitary answer or space there multiple aspects that are existing in a holistic approach? just how are the lessons learned in those time still relevant to our own personal healthcare initiatives today?

With the to know of Vitamin C in 1912, 144 years after Cook"s voyages, we now know that this vitamin in the diet is the solitary most essential ingredient in preventing scurvy. (2) But, there were numerous things undertaken by Capt. Chef that positively influenced the wellness of his men. Background mainly focuses on the consumption of vitamin-C wealthy foods, yet it often overlooks the other elements that i think room also part of Capt. Cook"s success.

While much of it was centered around diet, he likewise focused on hygiene and a factor to consider of the environment and also the contentment of his men. These all were an important components that what ns think represents a holistic philosophy in healthcare. Walk Capt. Chef have a holistic viewpoint and also apply preventive health measures throughout these scientific expeditions? I additionally wish to check out the question, what have we learned that is still applicable this day from this explorations which arisen 250 years earlier between 1768 - 1779?

Scurvy to be a historic killer the seafarers for centuries. "A modern-day historian that the condition has composed that, not included "straightforward famine", "scurvy is more than likely the nutritional deficiency an illness that has actually caused the most suffering in videotaped history". In the details context the the brother Navy, the condition is stated to have caused much more losses than enemy action during the eighteenth century, a period when brother was typically at war. Under those circumstances, the find for a cure because that scurvy attained higher urgency." (3)


“Scurvy is most likely the nutritional deficiency disease that has caused the most suffering in recorded history” The background of scurvy and also vitamin C by KJ Carpenter


What carry out know around scurvy and also its symptoms today? The institute of Tropical medicine in Antwerp, Belgium states, "Vitamin C is also known as ascorbic acid. This name refers to ‘antiscorbutic’ (from the short German term because that scurvy: schorbock). Vitamin C is necessary for the production of collagen. The symptoms of scurvy can be traced ago to defective collagen. Collagen is the commonest protein in the animal kingdom. Huge amounts of unusual amino mountain are discovered in collagen: hydroxylysine and hydroxyproline. This are necessary for the chemical stability of collagen. In scurvy, defective pro-alpha chain are formed (the development of hydroxy-amino mountain is disrupted). They carry out not kind a triple helix and also are conveniently degraded. The consequences are an initial noticed first in the tissues wherein collagen turnover is fastest, such together blood vessels. Fan to the gradual loss the the present collagen, the blood vessels become progressively fragile." (3) because that the seafarers of the job stricken through scurvy, they i found it bleeding gums, teeth falling out, open sores and internal bleeding. It was a terribly disastrous condition.

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In the recent theories of energy medicine, James Oschman, PhD, states in his theory of the Living matrix that collagen is a crystalline structure and is qualified of transmitting energetic signals and also information transparent the body. Through the malfunction in the collagen manufacturing system, we have the right to understand how debilitating the disease of scurvy deserve to be. Through the failure of the collagen production system, we lose both the circulatory system and with Oschman"s theory, a crucial means the energetic communications. (4)

In preparing for his very first long trip to Tahiti, Lt. Chef (before his promotion to captain) only had actually to look in ~ a previous expedition for the disastrous effects that the disease. Dr. R. Carmichael Tilghman (1904-1999), identified internist at john Hopkins university stated, "Undoubtedly he (Cook) had actually learned from the Admiralty that the disaster that befell Admiral George Anso, that in 1740 set out come circumnavigate the globe with six ships and returned four years later on with just one ship and also having experienced the ns of 1,051 members the his crew, indigenous an initial match of 1,955; the is 50% deaths, mostly attributable come scurvy." (5)

After Admiral Anso"s tremendous losses with an expedition with six ships and practically 2,000 men, Lt. James Cook"s mission contained one ship and also approximately 100 men. Rather than a fast and huge ship choose a schooner, chef chose a sturdy, however slow collier (freighter) named the Earl the Pembroke and renamed the His Majesty"s Bark, Endeavour. With this sturdy ship, Capt. Cook set off for the southern Pacific and the eight month voyage to Tahiti top top his scientific exploration to view and also record the Transit that Venus in an effort to measure up the planet"s distance from Earth.

In those days, "a sailor"s diet had salted fish and also meat, dried vegetables, weeviled biscuits and rancid oils, cheese, and butter. Together distilled beverages as beer, wine, and rum to be abundant. While the alcohol temporary eased the sailors" burdens, the resulting dehydration and also addiction caused numerous crashes and poor health. The caloric contents - estimated at 2,500-3,000 calorie - was adequate, however the diet was sorely deficient in vitamins. In the lack of vitamin C, rampant scurvy came to be responsible for countless sailors" deaths and also disabilities. On lengthy voyages, virtually three-quarters of a ship"s crew was most likely to be unable to sail therefore deficiency." (6)


On long voyages, virtually three-quarters that a ship"s crew was likely to be unable to sail thus deficiency. Scurvy"s Conquest and Sailors Health


Tlighman states, "His 3 voyages approximately the world were the first carefully planned and executed clinical expeditions. Despite he excelled together a navigator, together an explorer, as a cartographer, as an astronomer, chef with early out modesty thought about his significant achievement to it is in the preservation of health, the loss of sea diseases, because that this conquest had enabled pursuit of his primary objectives. One would be bold undoubtedly to deny that cook was a useful physician, without advantage of a degree or medical training, a actual clinical investigator and an exceptional climatologist." (5)

Among the several objectives of the chef missions to be an evaluation of agents in treating scurvy. Emphasis on the time was on cure; no one had actually conceived the the avoidance of scurvy. (5)


Emphasis on that time was on cure; no one had conceived the the prevention of scurvy. Dr. R. Carmichael Tilghman


James Lind, Scottish navy surgeon, carried out one of the world"s earliest managed clinical investigate in 1747. In this study, 12 seafarers all enduring from scurvy were provided same diet v additions: team 1: quart that cider day-to-day Group 2: 25 fall of elixir vitriol t.i.d. Team 3: a spoonful the vinegar group 4: sea water team 5: electuary of garlic, mustard seed, horseradish, and other such palatables group 6: 2 oranges and one lemon a job team 6 made an astonishing recovery and also were fit because that duty in 6 days. Cider was the second best remedy. The British journal of naval Research states, "It has actually long been well-known that James Lind"s treatise of the Scurvy (1753) did not decisively clear up the inquiries of the causes and the therapy of scurvy, in spite of its presentation the experimental evidence that appeared to prove the efficacy of oranges and lemons in the cure of scurvied seamen. It seeks to create Lind"s overarching theory of the condition and to present what part diet, and in particular, fruit and vegetables, play in this theory. It is said that Lind thought scurvy to be a disease of faulty digestion, and that this conception that the disorder entailed no insistence on the distinct efficacy of fruit and vegetables. Secondly, Lind"s own clinical practice in the years complying with the publishing of the treatise is described. The is said that Lind was not himself convinced by his very own experiments and that throughout his life he embraced a full variety of therapies for the disorder, consisting of treatments that did not involve the prescription of fruit and also vegetables come his patients. (7) J.C. Beaglehole, Cook"s biographer states around the challenges Capt. Cook faced with his 1768 mission, "You will recollect what chef was fighting against. He was fighting versus that ancient terror that the sea, so lot worse 보다 winds and also waves, the disease of scurvy; and he had actually a fighting faith in fresh food. He was responsible because that the health and wellness of a hundred—more than a hundred—men. As much as any good experimenter in the human cause, he would certainly take the lead himself. The did not desire his guys to walk down through scurvy, and also he was absolutely not walking down through scurvy himself." (8)


He was fighting versus that ancient terror of the sea, so lot worse than winds and waves, the condition of scurvy; and also he had actually a fighting faith in new food. JC Beaglehole, Capt. Cook"s biographer


What I uncover important in the native of Capt. Cook and others is the he go not put his belief into only one kind of food or one method but that wisely provided a substantial holistic approach considering diet, environment and also the psychological health and wellness of his men. And, as has been spicy out, his efforts were because that PREVENTING condition rather than concentrating on a cure. Ns see an excellent parallels between his efforts and his successes and also what we do with Touch because that Health, whereby we take it a holistic viewpoint and work to maintain balance in multiple locations of our stays as we exercise self-care and also preventive actions to maintain our wellness and balance. (9) while Capt. Cook"s superiors had charged him with cosmological and also discovery goals, chef himself was additionally focused top top the health and also survival that his crew while achieving his assigned missions.

After his an initial voyage roughly the civilization in 1768 - 1771, Capt. James Cook ended up being a fellow of the Royal society on 29 February, 1776. Virtually immediately after his election to the Fellowship, cook presented his paper, "The an approach taken for maintaining the wellness of the Crew of His Majesty"s delivery the Resolution during her late trip round the World." This record was released in the thoughtful Transactions of the Royal society of London, Volume 66, 1776. (5)

In his letter, cook attributed his success to a mix of methods, including: 1. Close attention to cleanliness on plank the ship; 2. Keeping a abundant supply of fresh water; 3. Procuring fresh food whenever possible; 4. Carrying and also using a selection of building materials which had known or suspected antiscorbutic properties. these substances consisted of such things as: 1. Sauerkraut (pickled cabbages), 2. Salted cabbage, 3. Portable broth (a soup, prepared from cattle offal and also flavoured with salt and also vegetables, climate evaporated to difficult cakes), 4. Salep or saloop (a flour made from dried orchid roots), mustard, marmalade that carrots (carrot juice evaporated to the consistency that treacle), 5. Plunder of lemon and orange (their juice evaporated to a syrup), and, 6. Most relevant here, malt (partly germinated climate dried barley), and also inspissated juice of wort and beer.

Tilghman states, "Antiscorbic steps was of peak priority and also it is details that this was the an initial ever incident to avoid a disease." (5)


Antiscorbic steps was of height priority and it is specific that this to be the very first ever incident to avoid a disease. Dr. R. Carmichael Tilghman


It is interesting reading about how his men adjusted to this emphasis on diet v its new foods and also additives. Beaglehole states, "And that knew his men; he knew the stubbornly conservative brother sailor. He to be a valuable psychologist and a helpful dietitian, and their stubbornness was no complement for his. Well, many of the time. It was only early on in his an initial voyage that he flogged males for refusing their ration of fresh meat. After that he trusted to the pressure of example, The amount of eco-friendly vegetable—wild celery and so on—he got into his guys by food preparation it with their breakfast wheat or pease in remote parts was enormous. And also the ethical fellows to be trained in the habit of searching for it together they wandered on shore. They go so: they learned soon enough that there to be a sure way into the Captain"s favour. Every innovation whatever though ever so much to their benefit is certain to accomplish with the greatest disapprobation indigenous Seamen, Portable Soup and also Sour Krout to be at very first both condemned by them as stuff not fit for humans to eat. that course, impressive as Cook"s achievement was in the conservation of health and wellness at sea, and important as this to be for his work-related as an explorer, the Admiralty did no send the out primarily to command experiments ~ above diet." (8)

Capt. Chef was additionally focused ~ above the living and working problems of his guys as component of his "holistic" method in boosting the all at once health the his crew. Here, he was applying much of the philosophy of James Lind. The newspaper of naval Research states, "...much the Lind’s treatise is given over come considerations no of diet, yet of the basic management of the seaman’s living and also working conditions. Lind’s model seaman would certainly be cheerful and also unmelancholic, because that he would be in ~ sea by choice, rather than as a an effect of the operations of the push gang. (Melancholia, Lind says, is second contributory variable in the onset of scurvy, although he prudently steers clear of explaining how the mind acts on the body.) also for land dwellers, and also especially those who live in damp places, the best means to keep free from scurvy, is "to remove right into dry, chearful, and also better-aired habitations’, Diet has actually its part to play: it should incorporate "plenty of recent vegetables, if they deserve to be procured’, but the psychological and environmental problems must it is in attended to." (7)

In Touch for Health, man Thie and many others have actually emphasized how stress and emotional trauma have the right to negatively influence overall health and also wellness. Dr. Thie often declared that up to 80% of all condition has its root in stress and also emotional trauma. Some researchers say the the complete may be even higher. (9) contemporary research is beginning to emphasis on this fact and also my recent article, Touch for Health, Mindfulness and brain Plasticity, gift the outcomes of research study by top psychologists and mind researchers. (10)

Emphasizing his holistic approach, Capt. Chef states, "But the advent of the most falutary articles, either as provision or medicines will generally prove unsuccessful, unless sustained by specific rules the living." (11) and also "The observance of this directions, together with moderate exercise, cleanliness of body, ease and also contentment the mind, procured by agreeable and entertaining amusements, will certainly prove adequate to avoid this an illness from climbing to any great height, whereby it is not altogether constitutional." (7)


But the development of the many falutary articles, either as provision or medicines will typically prove unsuccessful, unless supported by details rules that living. Capt. James Cook


Capt. Cook stated around his techniques... "On this principle, countless years experience, together with hints I had actually from sir Hugh Pallister, the Captains Campbell, Wallis, and also other clever officers, enabled me to lay down a setup whereby every was to be conducted:

The crew were at 3 watches, other than upon part extraordinary occasions. through this method that they were no so lot exposed come the weather as if lock had gone to watch and also watch: and also they had typically dry clothing to shift themselves when they got wet. Care was additionally taken to reveal them as tiny as possible. Appropriate methods to be employed to save their persons, hammocks, bedding, cloaths, confidently clean and also dry. Equal pains to be taken to save the delivery clean and dry between the decks. Once or twice a mainly she to be aired with fires; and also when this might not it is in done, she to be smoaked v gunpowder moistened with vinegar or water. Ns had likewise frequently a fire made in an iron pot in ~ the bottom the the well, which substantially purified the air in the lower parts that the ship. To this and cleanliness, too in the delivery as among the people, too good attention have the right to not be paid; the least neglect occasions a putrid, attack smell below, which nothing yet fires will removed, and if this be not used in time, those smells will certainly be attended with bad consequences. (11) proper care was taken the the pearls coppers, so that they were retained confidently clean. The fat, i beg your pardon boiled the end the salt beef and also pork, I never suffered to be offered to the civilization as is customary; being of opinion the it disclosure the scurvy. I never failed to take in water wherever it to be to be procured, even when us did no seem to want it; due to the fact that I watch upon fresh water native the coast to be much an ext wholesome than that which has been maintained some time top top board. Of this essential write-up we were never at one allowance, yet had always abundance for every crucial purpose. Ns am convinced, that with plenty of new water, and also a close attention to cleanliness, a ship"s firm will rarely be afflicted v the scurvy, though they need to not be listed with any kind of of the antiscorbutics prior to mentioned. We came to couple of places where either the art of guy or nature did not afford some type of refreshment or other, one of two people of the animal or vegetables kind. It was my first care come procure what could be met v of either by every means in my power, and to oblige our civilization to make use thereof, both by my example and authority; however the benefits occurring from such benefits soon came to be so obvious, that ns had little occasions come to rental either the one or the other. P. 402 (11)

Pickling and fermentation are an excellent ways of preserving food and were used extensively by Capt. Cook, particularly, fermented cabbage that us now know as sauerkraut.


Yulia Berry states around fermentation, "Over 200 types of bacteria live in our gut. This microbes help malfunction food in ours intestines, assist in the digestion process, aid fight off disease, and boost our immune system. A great balance of intestinal flora is really important come our all at once health. If we eat nothing but overly processed and hard come digest foods, climate the fermentation procedure that occurs within will certainly kick into overdrive result gas, bloating, diarrhea, constipation and might possibly bring about other diseases like cancer. Giving our bodies through predigested foods such as fermented an excellent will help the currently microbes within to perform the job they must do. Fermentation is not only a method to preserve certain foods, that some instances it actually adds to the nutrient value of it. Fermented vegetables contain an ext vitamin C (sailors would certainly eat sauerkraut to protect against scurvy) and also fermented milk assets have ample quantities of B vitamins." (12)

Marion Owen in his article, "Capt. Cook"s Love Affair v Cabbage" states, "The Dutch had actually observed the curative value of pickled cabbage. Cabbage has actually been the backbone and sustenance of many cultures for countless years, despite we often think that cabbage together a plain, end-of-the-line vegetables for folks the live in cold climates. Yet cabbage and also its numerous cousins prefer kale and also broccoli space grown approximately the world. And it"s thus adaptability, the nationwide Gardening Association decided cabbage as among their plants of the Year because that 2007. Indigenous a cook"s and also health-conscious perspective, this showy tree are likewise loaded through iron, folate, beta-carotene, potassium, and phyto-chemicals, such together glucosinolates--proven to mitigate cancer, specifically lung cancer." (13)


Another often overlooked discovery and also practice that Capt. Chef was the discovery of "Tea Tree Oil" in Australia. Earl Cook


Another regularly overlooked discovery and practice that Capt. Chef was the exploration of "Tea Tree Oil" in Australia. He had his males crush the leaves from the melaleuca tree and while the does not cite it being supplied as an antiseptic, it is very feasible that that was also used in this manner. A website committed to tea tree oil describes this discovery, "In Australia, the discovered many plant and animal species that were formerly unknown in the european continent, and also it to be his very first trip ~ above the endeavor that brought the world it’s first exposure come tea tree oil. The aborigines the Australia were the first to discover the heal properties that tea tree oil countless years ago. They cure cuts, burns, and also skin epidemic by crushing the leaves of the tree and also applying them come cuts and also injuries. In the 1770s, the British traveler Captain cook observed the native Australians imminent tea native the leaves. He then brewed tea the his own to give to his crew to prevent scurvy. The coined the surname tea tree". (14)

This website continues, "After the discovery of penicillin and also other antibiotics in the so late 1940s, tea tree oil went the end of favor together an antiseptic until the 1980s, once it was found that part bacteria to be resistant to certain antibiotics, such together methicillin and vancomycin. Today, there is renewed attention in tea tree oil together an alternative to these antibiotics for skin infections. What is the evidence? recent laboratory experiments suggest that tea tree oil holds promise together an antiseptic when provided on the skin to death germs, consisting of those that are resistant to methicillin, vancomycin, and other antibiotics. Other laboratory studies suggest that tea tree oil could be helpful versus scabies (skin mites) and also some types of fungus. A laboratory study released in 2006 showed that tea tree oil deserve to kill yeasts that cause mouth epidemic of cancer patients v weakened immune systems. However, the safety and effectiveness of tea tree oil has actually not to be tested in clinical research studies of cancer patients v mouth infections, and also the fact that tea tree oil is toxic when swallowed seems likely to border its use in mouth infections. The crucial oil has likewise been studied because that its effect versus MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), the "superbug" causing infections in immuno-comprimised hospital patients. This antibiotic resistant staph has been efficiently treated through Tea Tree oil in part cases." (14)

Supporting my belief that Capt. Cook"s approaches were "holistic" in nature is this explain by The Amanda Apothecary, "The oil is now famed in organic medicine for its antimicrobial, anti-viral, and anti-fungal effects. Some of its immune supportive properties might be a an outcome of the anti-depressant effects, as one"s emotionally well-being has actually a far-ranging impact ~ above the body"s ability to withstand infection." (15)

I find this statement specifically interesting together we discover the holistic approach Capt. Chef was acquisition to maintain the health and wellness of his men and also to protect against scurvy. Together we currently know, the mind-body connection is very an effective and that depression can negatively influence and suppress the immune system. Currently we see Capt. Chef using tea tree as a remedy for staying clear of scurvy and also that also has various other benefits that help fight turn off depression.


The mind-body elements of Capt. Cook"s techniques have not received lot attention by researchers yet deserve more research. Earl Cook


The mind-body aspects of Capt. Cook"s techniques have not received much attention by researchers yet deserves more research, in mine opinion. We understand in Touch for health that emotional and also mental states are among the vital aspects the a holistic approach. I think Capt. Chef had much more than a strong hunch the the emotional state the his men needed to be handle as part of the full solution. This id coupled with the id in fermentation could have led him come put more emphasis top top one aspect of his antiscorbutic solution than the deserved.

In his letter come the Royal society of London, Capt. Cook states, "We had actually on plank a big quantity the Malt, of which was sweet wort, and also given (not just to those men who had manifest symptom of the scurvy, however to such likewise as were, native circumstances, judged to be most liable to that disorder) from one to 2 to 3 pints in the job to each man, or in together proportions together the surgeon believed necessary; which periodically amounted to 3 quarts in the twenty-four hours. This is there is no doubt one of the best antiscorbutic sea-medicines yet uncovered out; and also if provided in time will, with appropriate attention to other things, i am persuaded, avoid the scurvy indigenous making any good progress for a significant time: but I am no altogether the opinion, that it will certainly cure it in an progressed state in ~ sea."

Brett Stubbs, PhD, from southerly Cross university states, "These all reflected the Admiralty’s problem that to be an ideal for use at sea, potential antiscorbutics should be stable, because that at the very least a year and also preferably two, and not be unduly bulky. Fermented liquor is one old one. Ale was a standard write-up of the sea ration as early as the fourteenth century, throughout the reign of Edward III. Henry VII created a navy brewery at Portsmouth in 1492 to it is provided his ships v beer. By Cook’s time, one gallon the beer per man had come to be the standard day-to-day allocation. The use of beer in ~ sea by now had occurred three main aspects. First, the was used as a food—it to be a clip beverage and an important part the the sea diet. The was also a luxury, help to ameliorate the hardship and also irregularity that sea life. And also thirdly, beer was considered as a medicine, conducive to wellness at sea. Beer to be administered as a cure for plenty of medical conditions, including scurvy. Numerous eighteenth century medical professionals expressed their id in the restorative and curative powers of beer. James Lind (1716-1794) in 1753 recommended ‘fermented liquors of all sorts’ together ‘beneficial’ in the struggle to stop scurvy."(3)

So, we have actually a background of using ale and beer in naval operations to add the recommendations of James Lind, the discoverer that the fact that scurvy could be impede by citrus exclaiming the virtues the the fermented alcoholic tonics. The is mine opinion that while this liquids walk not have actually a medicinal curative property, they did impact the men"s all at once mental and also emotional state positively in order to positively affecting your immune system and was one facet of Capt. Cook"s success ~ above these really long voyages. Home-sickness, melancholy and also what to be then termed "nostalgia" were very potent obstacles facing chef as he functioned to keep the as whole Health of his males both physically and also psychologically.

We know that abuse of alcohol has detrimental affects also; dehydration and also injury being two of these. We also know that Capt. Cook emphasized having wealth of clean and also fresh water for intake as component of his solution and I doubt he would of allowed the abuse that alcohol through his crew. He is well-known to have withheld a crewman"s ration of everyday "grog" for disciplinary functions so had manage over the supply.

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I hope that you see v the discourse in this post that Capt. Chef took a holistic approach and made background by working to prevent a an illness through a diet consist of of as lot fresh food as feasible and including fermented and also pickled foodstuffs high in vitamin-C; new water; exercise; security from the elements; controlled work schedules; offering amusement and also liquid refreshment because that enjoyment; keeping a clean and also dry environment; giving clean and also dry clothing; and gaining the respect of his guys through instance rather than threat. This holistic strategy to medical care in the so late 1700"s had really dramatic effects on man"s ability to take trip long distances in a healthy and balanced manner there is no succumbing come the dreaded scurvy v the attention to diet and also environment. Also today, those facts are not fully understood and also applied by modern healthcare professionals even though their merits to be proven century ago.

Carmichael Tilghman the the American Clinical and Climatological combination (ACCA) in his Presidential resolve entitled, Captain James cook (1728-1779), Explorations and also the occupation of Scurvy stated, "I have elected to current to you an account the a non-medical explorer, a layman in ours eyes, who exerted a profound influence on the eradication of a condition known from ancient times. He accomplished this without much, if any, expertise of the nature that its etiodology, but in so doing he significantly altered world history."(5)