You are watching: Why does magma rise to the surface
Lava fountain in ~ Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai`i. Credit: J.D Griggs, USGS
A volcano is an opening on the surface of a world or moon that enables material warmer 보다 its surroundings to escape native its interior. As soon as this product escapes, it causes an eruption. An eruption can be explosive, sending product high into the sky. Or it deserve to be calmer, with gentle flows of material.
This photograph shows one eruption of mount St. Helens in Washington in July 1980. This eruption sent ash 6 to 11 mile (10-18 kilometers) into the air, and also was visible in Seattle, Washington, 100 miles (160 kilometers) to the north. Credit: Mike Doukas, USGS
These volcanic locations usually form mountains built from the countless layers that rock, ash or other product that collect around them. Volcanoes have the right to be active, dormant, or extinct. Energetic volcanoes are volcanoes that have had actually recent eruptions or space expected to have eruptions in the close to future. Dormant volcanoes no longer produce eruptions, yet might again sometime in the future. Extinct volcanoes will likely never erupt again.
What reasons Volcanoes?
Lava balloon up native Kīlauea Volcano in Hawaiʻi Volcanoes nationwide Park. Credit: Scott Horvath, USGS.
Volcanoes take place when material substantially warmer 보다 its next site is erupted onto the surface ar of a earth or moon from its interior. On Earth, the erupted material deserve to be fluid rock ("lava" when it"s ~ above the surface, "magma" when it"s underground), ash, cinders, and/or gas. There space three factors why magma might rise and cause eruptions onto earth’s surface.
Volcanoes on Earth type from rising magma. Magma rises in three different ways.
Magma can rise once pieces that Earth"s crust dubbed tectonic plates gradually move away from each other. The magma rises approximately fill in the space. When this wake up underwater volcanoes deserve to form.
Magma additionally rises once these tectonic plates relocate toward each other. As soon as this happens, part of Earth"s crust have the right to be required deep right into its interior. The high heat and also pressure reason the crust to melt and also rise as magma. A final means that magma rises is over hot spots. Hot spots are specifically what they sound like--hot areas inside the Earth. These areas heat increase magma. The magma becomes less dense. As soon as it is less dense it rises. Each of the reasons for climbing magma room a bit different, however each can kind volcanoes.
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Are over there Volcanoes elsewhere In ours Solar System?
Yes! There have actually been a many volcanoes on various other planets in the past. Some locations in our solar system have energetic volcanoes erupting ideal now! Venus and also Mars room covered v extinct volcanoes. Few of the moons of Jupiter, Saturn, and also Neptune actually have eruptions happening ideal now. We have taken pictures of these with plenty of different keolistravelservices.com spacecraft!
A substantial plume erupts from the surface of Jupiter"s moon Io. Credit: keolistravelservices.com/JHU-APL/SRI.