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Contents 1. Training strategy2. Maps3. Marginal information and symbols4. Grids5. Scale and distance- Representative fraction- graphics (bar) scales- other methods6. Direction7. Overlays8. Aerial photographs9. Navigating equipment and methods10. Elevation and relief11. Terrain association12. Mounted land navigation13. Navigating in different varieties of terrain14. Unit sustainmentA. Field sketchingB. Map folding techniquesC. Units of measure and also conversion factorsD. Joint operations graphicsE. Exportable training materialF. OrienteeringG. M2 compassH. Added aidsI. International mapsJ. Worldwide positioning systemK. Precision lightweight worldwide positioning device receiver ## 5-2. Graphics (BAR) SCALESA graphic scale is a ruler published on the map and is provided to convert distances on the map come actual floor distances. The graphic range is split into two parts. Come the best of the zero, the scale is marked in full units the measure and also is called the main scale. Come the left that the zero, the scale is split into tenths and is dubbed the expansion scale. Most maps have actually three or an ext graphic scales, each utilizing a different unit of measure up (Figure 5-2). Once using the graphic scale, be certain to usage the correct scale for the unit of measure up desired.
a. To identify straight-line distance in between two points on a map, place a straight-edged item of record on the map so that the edge of the paper touches both points and extends previous them. Do a tick note on the sheet of the file at each point (Figure 5-3).
b. To convert the map street to ground distance, relocate the record down come the graphic bar scale, and also align the best tick note (b) with a published number in the primary scale so the the left tick note (a) is in the extension scale (Figure 5-4).
c. The best tick mark (b) is aligned through the 3,000-meter note in the major scale, thus the distance is at the very least 3,000 meters. To identify the distance in between the two points to the nearest 10 meters, look at the expansion scale. The expansion scale is numbered through zero in ~ the right and also increases to the left. As soon as using the extension scale, always read ideal to left (Figure 5-4). Indigenous the zero left to the beginning of the very first shaded area is 100 meters. From the beginning of the shaded square come the finish of the shaded square is 100 come 200 meters. From the end of the an initial shaded square come the start of the second shaded square is 200 to 300 meters. Remember, the distance in the expansion scale increases from right to left. d. To identify the street from the zero to tick note (a), divide the street inside the squares into tenths (Figure 5-4). As you break down the distance in between the squares in the expansion scale into tenths, friend will watch that tick mark (a) is aligned v the 950-meter mark. Including the street of 3,000 meters figured out in the main scale come the 950 meters you identified by using the extension scale, we uncover that the complete distance between points (a) and (b) is 3,950 meters. e. To measure distance follow me a road, stream, or various other curved line, the right edge the a piece of document is used. In bespeak to avoid confusion worrying the suggest to start measuring from and also the finishing point, an eight-digit coordinate must be offered for both the beginning and ending points. Ar a tick note on the paper and map at the beginning point from which the bent line is to it is in measured. Align the sheet of the document along a straight part and do a tick mark on both map and document when the edge of the paper leaves the straight portion of the heat being measured (Figure 5-5A).
f. Keeping both tick marks with each other (on document and map), ar the point of the pencil close come the edge of the file on the tick mark to host it in place and also pivot the document until one more straight section of the curved line is aligned v the sheet of the paper. Proceed in this manner until the measurement is perfect (Figure 5-5B). g. When you have completed measure up the distance, relocate the paper to the graphic scale to determine the floor distance. The only tick clues you will certainly be measure up the distance between are mite marks (a) and also (b). The tick marks in between are not supplied (Figure 5-5C). h. There might be times once the street you measure on the leaf of the document exceeds the graphics scale. In this case, there are various techniques you have the right to use to recognize the distance. (1) One an approach is to align the right tick mark (b) v a published number in the main scale, in this situation the 5. You deserve to see the from suggest (a) to allude (b) is more than 6,000meters once you add the 1,000 meter in the expansion scale. To determine the exact distance to the nearest 10 meters, place a tick note (c) ~ above the leaf of the paper at the end of the expansion scale (Figure 5-6A). You understand that from point (b) to suggest (c) is 6,000 meters. With the tick note (c) inserted on the leaf of the file at the finish of the expansion scale, slide the file to the right. Remember the distance in the expansion is always read from best to left. Align tick note (c) with zero and also then measure up the distance between tick clues (a) and (c). The distance between tick point out (a) and also (c) is 420 meters. The total ground distance between start and finish point out is 6,420 meters (Figure 5-6B).
(2) Another method that might be provided to determine precise distance between two points when the edge of the paper exceeds the bar range is to slide the leaf of the record to the appropriate until tick mark (a) is aligned through the edge of the expansion scale. Do a tick mark on the paper, in line through the 2,000-meter mark (c) (Figure 5-7A). Then slide the edge of the record to the left until tick note (b) is aligned v the zero. Estimate the 100-meter increments right into 10-meter increments to identify how many meters tick mark (c) is from the zero line (Figure 5-7B). The full distance would be 3,030 meters.
(3) At time you might want to know the distance from a allude on the map come a point off the map. In order to perform this, measure up the distance from the start suggest to the leaf of the map. The marginal notes provide the roadway distance native the edge of the map to some towns, highways, or junctions off the map. To determine the full distance, include the street measured top top the map come the distance given in the marginal notes. Be sure the unit of measure up is the same. (4) as soon as measuring distance in statute or nautical miles, round it off to the nearest one-tenth of a mile and also make sure the suitable bar range is used. (5) street measured top top a map does not take into factor to consider the rise and also fall the the land. All ranges measured by using the map and also graphic scales are level distances. Therefore, the distance measured ~ above a map will rise when actually measured ~ above the ground. This should be bring away into consideration when navigating throughout country. i. The quantity of time forced to take trip a certain distance ~ above the soil is critical factor in most military operations. This have the right to be figured out if a map that the area is easily accessible and a graphics time-distance range is created for use with the map as follows: R = price of take trip (speed) | T | = | Time | |

D = street (ground distance) | T | = | D | |

—— | ||||

R |

For example, if an infantry unit is marching in ~ an typical rate (R) of 4 kilometers per hour, it will certainly take about 3 hours (T) to take trip 12 kilometers.

12 (D) | = | 3 (T) |

—— | ||

4 (R) |

j. To build a time-distance scale (Figure 5-8A), learning your length of march, rate of speed, and map scale, the is, 12 kilometers in ~ 3 kilometers per hour top top a 1:50,000-scale map, use the complying with process:

(1) mark off the complete distance on a line by referring to the graphic range of the map or, if this is impracticable, compute the length of the line together follows:

(a) convert the ground street to centimeters: 12kilometers x 100,000 (centimeters per kilometer) = 1,200,000 centimeters.

(b) find the size of the line to stand for the distance at map scale—

MD | = | 1 | = | 1,200,000 | = 24 centimeters |

———— | ———— | ||||

50,000 | 50,000 |

(c) build a line 24 centimeters in size (Figure 5-8A).

**Figure 5-8. Constructing a time-distance scale.**

(2) divide the heat by the price of march into three components (Figure 5-8B), each component representing the street traveled in one hour, and label.

See more: Three Hundred Dollars And Zero Cents In Six Steps With Pictures

(3) divide the scale extension (left portion) into the desired variety of lesser time divisions—

**1-minute departments — 60**

**5-minute departments — 12**

**10-minute departments — 6**

(4) number 5-8C mirrors a 5-minute expression scale. Do these departments in the very same manner together for a graphic scale. The completed scale makes it feasible to identify where the unit will be at any kind of given time. However, it have to be remembered that this range is for one specific rate of in march only, 4 kilometers every hour.

Scale and distanceRepresentative portion |Graphic (bar) scales |Other approaches | |