What this handout is about

This handout gives some tips and strategies for revising your writing. To give you a opportunity to exercise proofreading, we have actually left 7 errors (three order errors, two pkeolistravelservices.comtuation errors, and also two grammar errors) in the text of this handout. Check out if you deserve to spot them!

Is modifying the same thing together proofreading?

Not exactly. Although many human being use the terms interchangeably, editing and also proofreading are two different stages that the review process. Both demand close and also careful reading, but they focus on different aspects of the writing and also employ various techniques.

You are watching: Which of the following is not part of the editing and proofreading stage of the writing process?

Some tips that use to both editing and proofreading

Get part distance native the text! It’s difficult to modify or proofread a paper that you’ve simply finished writing—it’s still to familiar, and also you often tend to skip over a many errors. Placed the document aside for a couple of hours, days, or weeks. Walk for a run. Take it a expedition to the beach. Clear your head of what you’ve written so you deserve to take a fresh look at the file and see what is yes, really on the page. Much better yet, offer the file to a friend—you can’t get much much more distance than that. Someone who is analysis the document for the an initial time, involves it with completely fresh eyes.Decide which medium allows you proofread most carefully. Some human being like to work right in ~ the computer, while others choose to sit back with a printed copy that they have the right to mark up together they read.Try changing the look at of her document. changing the size, spacing, color, or format of the text might trick your mind into reasoning it’s seeing an unfamiliar document, and also that can help you acquire a different perspective top top what you’ve written.Find a quiet location to work. Don’t shot to carry out your proofreading in prior of the TV or while you’re chugging far on the treadmill. Uncover a place where you deserve to concentrate and also avoid distractions.If possible, execute your editing and proofreading in several brief blocks that time. your concentration might start come wane if you shot to proofread the whole text in ~ one time.If you’re brief on time, you may wish come prioritize. Make certain that you finish the most essential editing and also proofreading tasks.


Editing is what you begin doing as quickly as you end up your very first draft. You reread her draft to see, for example, whether the document is well-organized, the transitions between paragraphs room smooth, and also your evidence really backs up her argument. You can edit on several levels:


Have friend done whatever the assignment requires? space the insurance claims you make accurate? If that is compelled to do so, go your record make one argument? Is the debate complete? Are every one of your cases consistent? have actually you supported each suggest with adequate evidence? Is all of the info in your paper relevant come the assignment and/or your overall writing goal? (For added tips, watch our handouts on knowledge assignments and also developing one argument.)

Overall structure

Does your paper have one appropriate advent and conclusion? Is your thesis clearly stated in her introduction? Is it clear just how each paragraph in the body of your record is pertained to your thesis? are the paragraphs arranged in a reasonable sequence? have you made clear transitions between paragraphs? One way to examine the framework of your record is to make a reverse synopsis of the file after you have written the very first draft. (See ours handouts top top introductions, conclusions, thesis statements, and transitions.)

Structure within paragraphs

Does every paragraph have a clear topic sentence? does each i stick to one key idea? space there any extraneous or absent sentences in any type of of her paragraphs? (See our handout on i development.)


Have friend defined any important state that could be keolistravelservices.comlear to her reader? Is the definition of every sentence clear? (One method to prize this inquiry is to check out your file one sentence at a time, starting at the end and also working backwards so that you will certainly not keolistravelservices.comonsciously fill in content from ahead sentences.) Is it clear what every pronoun (he, she, it, they, which, who, this, etc.) ad to? have you liked the suitable words come express her ideas? protect against using indigenous you find in the thesaurus the aren’t component of your regular vocabulary; you may misuse them.


Have you supplied an suitable tone (formal, informal, persuasive, etc.)? Is your use of gendered language (masculine and feminine pronouns like “he” or “she,” words favor “fireman” the contain “man,” and also words that some human being incorrectly assume apply to just one gender—for example, some civilization assume “nurse” must refer come a woman) appropriate? have actually you varied the length and also structure of your sentences? carry out you tends to usage the passive voice too often? walk your writing contain a most unnecessary phrases favor “there is,” “there are,” “due to the fact that,” etc.? execute you repeat a strong word (for example, a vivid key verb) unnecessarily? (For tips, check out our handouts on style and also gender-inclusive language.)


Have you accordingly cited quotes, paraphrases, and ideas you gained from sources? space your citations in the exactly format? (See the keolistravelservices.com Libraries quote tutorial for much more information.)

As you edit at all of these levels, you will normally make far-ranging revisions to the content and wording of your paper. Save an eye out for fads of error; learning what type of problems you often tend to have actually will it is in helpful, especially if girlfriend are modifying a large paper like a thesis or dissertation. When you have determined a pattern, you can construct techniques for spotting and correcting future instances of the pattern. For example, if you notification that girlfriend often comment on several distinct topics in every paragraph, you can go through your file and underline the crucial words in every paragraph, climate break the paragraphs increase so that each one focuses on simply one key idea.


Proofreading is the final stage the the editing process, concentrating on surface errors such as misspellings and also mistakes in grammar and also pkeolistravelservices.comtuation. You have to proofread only after you have finished all of your other editing and enhancing revisions.

Why proofread? It’s the content that really matters, right?

Content is important. Yet like it or not, the means a document looks influence the method others referee it. When you’ve operated hard to develop and also present her ideas, friend don’t desire careless errors distracting your leader from what you have to say. It’s worth paying attention to the details that assist you to do a an excellent impression.

Most civilization devote just a few minutes to proofreading, hope to catch any kind of glaring errors that jump the end from the page. However a quick and cursory reading, especially after you’ve been working long and also hard top top a paper, normally misses a lot. It’s much better to job-related with a definite setup that help you to search systematically for certain kinds that errors.

Sure, this takes a tiny extra time, yet it pays turn off in the end. If you recognize that you have actually an effective means to record errors once the file is nearly finished, you can issue less around editing if you space writing your very first drafts. This provides the whole writing proccess more efficient.

Try to store the editing and proofreading processes separate. Once you are editing an early draft, you don’t desire to it is in bothered with thinking about pkeolistravelservices.comtuation, grammar, and spelling. If her worrying around the spelling of a word or the location of a comma, you’re not focusing on the much more important task of developing and connecting ideas.

The proofreading process

You probably already use some of the strategies debated below. Experiment with various tactics until you find a mechanism that works well because that you. The crucial thing is to do the procedure systematic and focused so that you catch as plenty of errors as possible in the least amount the time.

Don’t rely completely on spelling checkers. These can be helpful tools yet they are far from foolproof. Order checkers have a restricted dictionary, so part words that show up as misspelled might really just not it is in in their memory. In addition, order checkers will certainly not catch misspellings that type another valid word. For example, if you form “your” rather of “you’re,” “to” instead of “too,” or “there” rather of “their,” the assignment checker won’t record the error.Grammar checkers have the right to be even much more problematic. these programs work with a minimal number that rules, therefore they can’t identify every error and also often do mistakes. They additionally fail to give thorough explanations to assist you know why a sentence must be revised. You might want to usage a grammar checker to help you determine potential run-on sentence or too-frequent usage of the passive voice, but you need to be able to evaluate the feedback it provides.Proofread for just one kind of error in ~ a time. If you shot to identify and revise too countless things in ~ once, girlfriend risk shedding focus, and your proofreading will certainly be much less effective. It’s less complicated to catch grammar errors if friend aren’t check pkeolistravelservices.comtuation and also spelling at the exact same time. In addition, few of the techniques that occupational well because that spotting one kind of failure won’t record others.Separate the text into individual sentences. This is another technique to help you to read every sentence carefully. Merely press the return an essential after every period so that every line starts a new sentence. Then check out each sentence separately, in search of grammar, pkeolistravelservices.comtuation, or assignment errors. If you’re working through a printed copy, try using an opaque object like a leader or a item of file to isolate the line you’re functioning on.Circle every pkeolistravelservices.comtuation mark. This pressures you to look at each one. Together you circle, ask you yourself if the pkeolistravelservices.comtuation is correct.Read the document backwards. This an approach is useful for check spelling. Begin with the critical word on the last page and also work your means back come the beginning, analysis each word separately. Due to the fact that content, pkeolistravelservices.comtuation, and grammar won’t make any sense, your focus will be totally on the order of each word. Girlfriend can also read backwards sentence through sentence to check grammar; this will aid you avoid becoming distracted by contents issues.Proofreading is a finding out process. You’re not just looking for errors the you recognize; you’re likewise learning to recognize and correct new errors. This is whereby handbooks and also dictionaries come in. Store the ones girlfriend find helpful close at hand as you proofread.Ignorance might be bliss, but it won’t make you a better proofreader. You’ll often find things that don’t seem fairly right to you, however you may not be rather sure what’s dorn either. A word looks prefer it might be misspelled, but the order checker didn’t catch it. Girlfriend think you need a comma between two words, yet you’re not certain why. Should you usage “that” rather of “which”? If you’re not sure about something, look it up.The proofreading process becomes more efficient together you develop and practice a methodical strategy. You’ll learn to identify the specific areas of your very own writing that need cautious attention, and knowing the you have a sound an approach for recognize errors will assist you to focus an ext on arising your concepts while you room drafting the paper.

Think you’ve got it?

Then offer it a try, if you haven’t already! This handout has seven errors our proofreader should have caught: 3 spelling errors, two pkeolistravelservices.comtuation errors, and also two grammar errors. Try to discover them, and also then check a version of this web page with the errors significant in red to view if you’re a proofreading star.

Works consulted

We consulted these works while composing this handout. This is no a an extensive list of sources on the handout’s topic, and also we encourage friend to perform your own research come find added publications. Please execute not use this list as a model for the layout of your own reference list, together it might not complement the citation layout you are using. Because that guidance ~ above formatting citations, please view the keolistravelservices.com Libraries citation tutorial. We revise these advice periodically and also welcome feedback.

Especially for non-native speaker of English:

Ascher, Allen. 2006. Think about Editing: an ESL overview for the Harbrace Handbooks. Boston: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Lane, Janet, and Ellen Lange. 2012. Composing Clearly: Grammar for Editing, 3rd ed. Boston: Heinle.

For everyone:

Einsohn, Amy. 2011. The Copyeditor’s Handbook: A overview for publication Publishing and Corporate Communications, third ed. Berkeley: college of California Press.

Lanham, Richard A. 2006. Modification Prose, fifth ed. Brand-new York: Pearson Longman.

See more: How Can You Draw A Square With 3 Lines, How Can You Draw A Square With Three Lines

Tarshis, Barry. 1998. How to Be your Own best Editor: The Toolkit for Everyone that Writes. Brand-new York: three Rivers Press.

This job-related is licensed under a creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 License.You might reproduce it for non-commercial usage if you use the whole handout and attribute the source: The writing Center, college of north Carolina in ~ Chapel Hill