Learning Objectives

The art of the Italian Renaissance was influential throughout Europe because that centuries.

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Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe Florence school of painting became the dominant style during the Renaissance. Renaissance artworks depicted an ext secular subject matter than previous artistic movements.Michelangelo, da Vinci, and Rafael are amongst the best known painters of the High Renaissance.The High Renaissance was adhered to by the Mannerist movement, recognized for elongated figures.Key Termsfresco: A kind of wall surface painting in which shade pigments are blended with water and also applied come wet plaster. Together the plaster and pigments dry, lock fuse together and the painting becomes a component of the wall surface itself.Mannerism: A layout of art emerged at the finish of the High Renaissance, identified by the deliberate distortion and also exaggeration the perspective, particularly the elongation of figures.

The Renaissance began during the 14th century and remained the conquer style in Italy, and also in much of Europe, until the 16th century. The term “renaissance” was developed during the 19th century in stimulate to describe this duration of time and its accompanying imaginative style. However, human being who to be living during the Renaissance did view themselves as different from their medieval predecessors. Through a range of texts that survive, we understand that human being living during the Renaissance witnessed themselves as different largely since they were deliberately trying to imitate the Ancients in art and also architecture.

Florence and also the Renaissance

When friend hear the term “Renaissance” and snapshot a style of art, girlfriend are probably picturing the Renaissance format that was emerged in Florence, which ended up being the conquer style of art during the Renaissance. Throughout the middle Ages and also the Renaissance, Italy was divided into a number of different city states. Every city state had its very own government, culture, economy, and also artistic style. There were countless different styles of art and also architecture the were emerged in Italy throughout the Renaissance. Siena, which to be a political allied of France, for example, preserved a Gothic facet to its arts for lot of the Renaissance.

Certain conditions aided the development of the Renaissance format in Florence during this time period. In the 15th century, Florence came to be a major mercantile center. The production of cloth drove their economy and also a vendor class emerged. Humanism, which had emerged during the 14th century, remained vital intellectual motion that affected art production as well.

Early Renaissance

During the at an early stage Renaissance, artists started to refuse the oriental style of spiritual painting and also strove to develop realism in your depiction that the human type and space. This aim towards realism started with Cimabue and also Giotto, and also reached its height in the arts of the “Perfect” artists, such together Andrea Mantegna and Paolo Uccello, who developed works the employed one allude perspective and played v perspective for your educated, arts knowledgeable viewer.

During the beforehand Renaissance we also see important breakthroughs in topic matter, in addition to style. While religion was an essential element in the day-to-day life of people living during the Renaissance, and remained a driving variable behind imaginative production, we likewise see a new avenue open to panting—mythological subject matter. Many scholars point to Botticelli’s Birth the Venus as the very very first panel paint of a superordinary scene. When the heritage itself likely developed from cassone painting, which frequently featured scenes from mythology and romantic texts, the advancement of supernatural panel painting would open up a civilization for artistic patronage, production, and also themes.

Birth the Venus: Botticelli’s birth of Venus was among the most vital works that the at an early stage Renaissance.

High Renaissance

The period known together the High Renaissance to represent the culmination of the objectives of the beforehand Renaissance, namely the realistic representation of numbers in space rendered through credible motion and in an accordingly decorous style. The most famed artists indigenous this phase are Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Titian, and also Michelangelo. Their paintings and frescoes are among the many widely known works of arts in the world. Da Vinci’s Last Supper, Raphael’s The school of Athens and also Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel Ceiling paintings are the masterpieces the this period and embody the elements of the High Renaissance.

Marriage of the Virgin, by Raphael: The painting depicts a marriage ceremony in between Mary and Joseph.


High Renaissance painting evolved into Mannerism in Florence. Mannerist artists, who consciously rebelled against the principles of High Renaissance, often tended to stand for elongated numbers in illogical spaces. Modern scholarship has actually recognized the volume of Mannerist arts to convey strong, often religious, emotion where the High Renaissance failed to execute so. Few of the key artists that this duration are Pontormo, Bronzino, Rosso Fiorentino, Parmigianino and Raphael’s pupil, Giulio Romano.

Art and Patronage

The Medici family used their large fortune to regulate the Florentine political system and sponsor a series of artistic accomplishments.

Learning Objectives

Discuss the relationship in between art, patronage, and also politics throughout the Renaissance

Key Takeaways

Key PointsAlthough the Renaissance to be underway prior to the Medici family involved power in Florence, their patronage and political assistance of the arts helped catalyze the Renaissance into a fully fledged social movement.The Medici wealth and also influence initially obtained from the textile profession guided by the guild the the Arte della Lana; with financial superiority, the Medici dominated their city’s government.Medici patronage to be responsible because that the bulk of Florentine art throughout their reign, together artists typically only made your works when they got commissions in advance.Although no one of the Medici themselves were scientists, the family is renowned to have actually been the patrons the the renowned Galileo Galilei, who tutored many generations that Medici children.Key TermsLorenzo de’ Medici: one Italian statesman and also de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic, that was among the most an effective and enthusiastic patrons that the Renaissance.patronage: The support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an company or individual bestows top top another, particularly in the arts.


It has long to be a issue of debate why the Renaissance began in Florence, and not elsewhere in Italy. Scholars have listed several features unique to Florentine social life that may have caused together a social movement. Many have emphasized the role played by the Medici, a bank family and later ducal ruling house, in patronizing and also stimulating the arts. Lorenzo de’ Medici (1449–1492) was the catalyst for an massive amount of arts patronage, encouraging his countrymen to commission works from the leading artists the Florence, including Leonardo da Vinci, Sandro Botticelli, and Michelangelo Buonarroti. Works by Neri di Bicci, Botticelli, da Vinci, and also Filippino Lippi had actually been commissioned furthermore by the convent di san Donato agli Scopeti that the Augustinians order in Florence.

The Medici house Patronage

The home of Medici was an Italian bank family, politics dynasty, and later royal home that an initial began to gather prominence under Cosimo de’ Medici in the Republic the Florence during the very first half that the 15th century. Their wealth and influence initially obtained from the textile trade guided by the guild of the Arte della Lana. Like other signore families, they overcame their city’s government, they to be able to carry Florence under their family’s power, and they produced an setting where art and Humanism could flourish. They, in addition to other households of Italy, such together the Visconti and Sforza that Milan, the Este that Ferrara, and the Gonzaga of Mantua, fostered and also inspired the bear of the Italian Renaissance.

The biggest accomplishments of the Medici were in the sponsorship the art and also architecture, greatly early and also High Renaissance art and also architecture. The Medici were responsible for the bulk of Florentine art during their reign. Your money was far-ranging because throughout this period, artists generally only made their works as soon as they received commissions in advance. Giovanni di Bicci de’ Medici, the first patron that the arts in the family, aided Masaccio and also commissioned Brunelleschi because that the reconstruction of the Basilica of san Lorenzo, Florence, in 1419. Cosimo the Elder’s notable creative associates to be Donatello and Fra Angelico. The most far-reaching addition come the list over the years to be Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475–1564), who produced work for a variety of Medici, beginning with Lorenzo the Magnificent, who was said to be very fond of the young Michelangelo, inviting the to examine the household collection of antique sculpture. Lorenzo additionally served together patron of Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) for seven years. Indeed, Lorenzo was an artist in his own right, and also an author of poetry and also song; his support of the arts and letters is seen as a high point in Medici patronage.


The Medici House: Medici household members put allegorically in the entourage that a king native the three Wise guys in the Tuscan landscape in a Benozzo Gozzoli fresco, c. 1459.

In architecture, the Medici are responsible for part notable attributes of Florence, consisting of the Uffizi Gallery, the Boboli Gardens, the Belvedere, the Medici Chapel, and the Palazzo Medici. Later, in Rome, the Medici Popes continued in the family members tradition through patronizing artist in Rome. Pope Leo X would chiefly commission functions from Raphael. Pope Clement VII i was delegated Michelangelo to paint the altar wall surface of the Sistine Chapel just before the pontiff’s death in 1534. Eleanor of Toledo, princess the Spain and also wife that Cosimo ns the Great, to buy the Pitti palace from Buonaccorso Pitti in 1550. Cosimo in turn patronized Vasari, who put up the Uffizi gallery in 1560 and also founded the Accademia delle Arti del Disegno (“Academy of the art of Drawing”) in 1563. Marie de’ Medici, widow the Henry IV of France and also mother that Louis XIII, is the subject of a i was delegated cycle of paintings recognized as the Marie de’ Medici cycle, painted for the Luxembourg palace by court painter Peter Paul Rubens in 1622–1623.

Although nobody of the Medici themselves were scientists, the family members is famous to have been the patrons that the renowned Galileo Galilei, who tutored many generations that Medici children and also was an important figurehead because that his patron’s search for power. Galileo’s patronage was at some point abandoned by Ferdinando II as soon as the Inquisition accused Galileo of heresy. However, the Medici household did bought the scientist a for sure haven for numerous years. Galileo called the 4 largest moons the Jupiter after 4 Medici kids he tutored, back the surname Galileo supplied are no the names right now used.

Leonardo da Vinci

While Leonardo da Vinci is admired as a scientist, one academic, and also an inventor, the is most renowned for his accomplishments as the painter of number of Renaissance masterpieces.

Learning Objectives

Describe the functions of Leonardo da Vinci that show his most innovative methods as an artist

Key Takeaways

Key PointsAmong the characteristics that make da Vinci’s work unique are the innovative approaches that he supplied in laying top top the paint, his comprehensive knowledge the anatomy, his innovative use of the human type in figurative composition, and also his usage of sfumato.Among the most well known works produced by da Vinci is the tiny portrait title the Mona Lisa, well-known for the elusive laugh on the woman’s face, brought about by the fact that da Vinci subtly shadowed the corners of the mouth and also eyes so that the specific nature of the laugh cannot be determined.Despite his well known paintings, da Vinci was no a prolific painter; he to be a prolific draftsman, maintaining journals complete of small sketches and also detailed illustrations recording all manner of points that interested him.Key Termssfumato: In painting, the application of ethereal layers of translucent paint so the there is no visible transition between colors, tones, and often objects.

While Leonardo da Vinci is significantly admired together a scientist, an academic, and an inventor, that is most famous for his accomplishments as the artist of several Renaissance masterpieces. His paints were groundbreaking for a variety of reasons and his works have been imitated through students and discussed at great length by connoisseurs and also critics.

Among the attributes that make da Vinci’s work distinct are the innovative techniques that he supplied in laying on the paint, his in-depth knowledge that anatomy, his usage of the human form in figurative composition, and his use of sfumato. All of these features are current in his most commemorated works, the Mona Lisa, The last Supper, and the Virgin the the Rocks.


The Virgin of the Rocks, Leonardo da Vinci, 1483–1486: This painting shows the Madonna and Child Jesus with the infant John the Baptist and an angel, in a rocky setting.

The critical Supper

Da Vinci’s most commemorated painting of the 1490s is The last Supper, which to be painted because that the refectory of the Convent the Santa Maria della Grazie in Milan. The paint depicts the last meal common by Jesus and the 12 Apostles where he announces that among the them will certainly betray him. As soon as finished, the painting was acclaimed as a masterpiece that design. This work demonstrates something the da Vinci did very well: taking a really traditional topic matter, such together the last Supper, and completely re-inventing it.

Prior come this moment in arts history, every representation of the critical Supper complied with the very same visual tradition: Jesus and the Apostles seated at a table. Judas is placed on the opposite next of the table of anyone else and is effortlessly established by the viewer. As soon as da Vinci painted The critical Supper he placed Judas on the same side that the table together Christ and also the Apostles, who are presented reacting to Jesus together he announces that among them will certainly betray him. Castle are portrayed as alarmed, upset, and also trying to recognize who will commit the act. The viewer also has to recognize which number is Judas, who will betray Christ. By illustrating the step in this manner, da Vinci has infused psychology into the work.

Unfortunately, this masterpiece the the Renaissance began to deteriorate automatically after da Vinci finished painting, due greatly to the painting an approach that he had actually chosen. Rather of using the method of fresco, da Vinci had actually used tempera over a ground the was mostly gesso in an attempt to bring the subtle impacts of oil repaint to fresco. His new an approach was no successful, and resulted in a surface ar that was subject to mold and flaking.

The last Supper: Leonardo da Vinci’s critical Supper, although lot deteriorated, displayed the painter’s mastery the the human kind in figurative composition.

Mona Lisa

Among the works developed by da Vinci in the 16th century is the little portrait known as the Mona Lisa, or La Gioconda, “the laughing one.” In the current era it is may be the most renowned painting in the world. Its fame rests, in particular, top top the elusive smile on the woman’s face—its mysterious quality brought around perhaps by the truth that the artist has actually subtly shadowed the corners that the mouth and also eyes so that the exact nature of the laugh cannot it is in determined.

The shadowy quality for which the job-related is renowned happened called sfumato, the applications of subtle layers that translucent repaint so the there is no visible transition between colors, tones, and also often objects. Other attributes found in this occupational are the unadorned dress, in i beg your pardon the eyes and also hands have no compete from various other details; the dramatic see background, in i m sorry the human being seems to it is in in a state that flux; the subdued coloring; and also the exceptionally smooth nature that the painterly technique, use oils, but used much prefer tempera and also blended on the surface so the the brushstrokes are indistinguishable. And also again, da Vinci is innovating ~ above a type of painting here. Portraits were very common in the Renaissance. However, portraits of women were constantly in profile, which was viewed as proper and modest. Here, da Vinci current a portrait that a woman that not only faces the viewer yet follows them through her eyes.

Mona Lisa: In the Mona Lisa, da Vinci incorporates his sfumato an approach to create a shadowy quality.

Virgin and also Child with St. Anne

In the painting Virgin and Child v St. Anne, da Vinci’s ingredient again choose up the theme of numbers in a landscape. What provides this painting unusual is that there room two obliquely collection figures superimposed. Mary is sit on the knee of her mother, St. Anne. She leans front to restrain the Christ child as he plays approximately with a lamb, the sign of his own unavoidable sacrifice. This paint influenced plenty of contemporaries, consisting of Michelangelo, Raphael, and also Andrea del Sarto. The patterns in its composition were adopted in details by the Venetian painters Tintoretto and also Veronese.

Virgin and Child through Saint Anne: Virgin and also Child through St. Ann (c. 1510) by Leonardo da Vinci, Louvre Museum.


Michelangelo to be a 16th century Florentine artist renowned because that his masterpieces in sculpture, painting, and architectural design.

Learning Objectives

Discuss Michelangelo’s success in sculpture, painting, and also architecture

Key Takeaways

Key PointsMichelangelo produced his colossal marble statue, the David, out of a single block of marble, which created his prominence as a sculptor that extraordinary technological skill and strength the symbolic imagination.In painting, Michelangelo is renowned because that the ceiling and The last Judgement of the Sistine Chapel, wherein he depicted a facility scheme representing Creation, the Downfall the Man, the Salvation that Man, and also the family tree of Christ.Michelangelo’s chief contribution to Saint Peter’s Basilica was the use of a Greek Cross type and an exterior masonry of huge proportions, through every edge filled in by a stairwell or little vestry. The impact is a constant wall-surface the appears broken or urgent at various angles.Key Termscontrapposto: The standing place of a human figure where many of the load is placed on one foot, and the other leg is relaxed. The result of contrapposto in art makes numbers look an extremely naturalistic.Sistine Chapel: The best-known chapel in the Apostolic Palace.

Michelangelo to be a 16th century Florentine artist renowned for his masterpieces in sculpture, painting, and architectural design. His most famed works space the David, the Last Judgment, and also the Basilica that Saint Peter’s in the Vatican.

Sculpture: David

In 1504, Michelangelo was commissioned to produce a colossal marble statue showing David as a symbol of Florentine freedom. The subsequent masterpiece, David, developed the artist’s prestige as a sculptor of extraordinary technological skill and also strength that symbolic imagination. David was produced out that a solitary marble block, and also stands larger than life, as it was initially intended to adorn the Florence Cathedral. The work differs native previous representations in the the Biblical hero is not depicted with the head the the slain Goliath, together he is in Donatello’s and Verrocchio’s statues; both had actually represented the hero standing victorious over the head of Goliath. No earlier Florentine artist had actually omitted the large altogether. Rather of appearing victorious over a foe, David’s challenge looks tense and also ready because that combat. The tendons in his neck stand out tautly, his brow is furrowed, and his eyes seem to emphasis intently on something in the distance. Veins bulge out of his lowered right hand, yet his body is in a serene contrapposto pose, and he carries his sling casually thrown end his left shoulder. In the Renaissance, contrapposto poses were believed of together a distinctive function of neck sculpture.

The David by Michelangelo, 1504: Michelangelo’s David stands in contrapposto pose.

The sculpture to be intended come be placed on the exterior that the Duomo, and has come to be one that the most recognized works of Renaissance sculpture.

Painting: The critical Judgement

In painting, Michelangelo is renowned for his job-related in the Sistine Chapel. The was originally commissioned to paint tromp-l’oeil coffers after the original ceiling emerged a crack. Michelangelo lobbied for a different and also more facility scheme, representing Creation, the Downfall the Man, the Promise that Salvation v the prophets, and also the genealogy of Christ. The work is component of a larger scheme that decoration in ~ the chapel that represents much of the doctrine of the Catholic Church.

The composition eventually contained over 300 figures, and also had at its facility nine illustration from the book of Genesis, split into three groups: God’s production of the Earth, God’s production of Humankind, and also their autumn from God’s grace, and lastly, the state of humankind as stood for by Noah and also his family. Twelve men and women who prophesied the resulting the Jesus space painted on the pendentives supporting the ceiling. Among the most famous paintings on the ceiling are The development of Adam, Adam and also Eve in the Garden that Eden, the good Flood, the Prophet Isaiah and also the Cumaean Sibyl. The ancestors that Christ room painted around the windows.

The fresco that The Last judgment on the altar wall surface of the Sistine Chapel was i was delegated by Pope Clement VII, and also Michelangelo labored on the job from 1536–1541. The occupational is situated on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel, i beg your pardon is not a timeless placement for the subject. Typically, last judgement scenes were inserted on the exit wall surface of churches as a way to remind the viewer the eternal punishments as they left worship. The Last referee is a relenten of the second coming the Christ and also the apocalypse; whereby the souls of humanity rise and also are assigned to their assorted fates, together judged by Christ, surrounding by the Saints. In comparison to the previously figures Michelangelo painted top top the ceiling, the numbers in The last Judgement are greatly muscled and are in much an ext artificial poses, demonstrating just how this work-related is in the Mannerist style.

In this work-related Michelangelo has rejected the orderly depiction of the last judgement as developed by Medieval tradition in favor of a swirling scene of chaos together each soul is judged. When the painting was revealed that was heavily criticized because that its consist of of classical imagery and for the amount of nude numbers in rather suggestive poses. The okay reception that the work-related received may be tied to the respond to Reformation and the the supervisory board of Trent, which cause a choice for an ext conservative spiritual art devoid of timeless references. Although a variety of figures were made much more modest with the addition of drapery, the transforms were not made till after the death of Michelangelo, demonstrating the respect and also admiration the was afforded to him during his lifetime.

The critical Judgement: The fresco of The Last judgment on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel was commissioned by Pope Clement VII. Michelangelo operated on the project from 1534–1541.

Architecture: St. Peter’s Basilica

Finally, although various other architects to be involved, Michelangelo is given credit for developing St. Peter’s Basilica. Michelangelo’s chief contribution was the usage of a symmetrical arrangement of a Greek Cross form and an outside masonry of enormous proportions, through every corner filled in by a stairwell or little vestry. The effect is that a continuous wall surface that is urgently or fractured at different angles, lacking the right angles that typically define readjust of direction at the corners the a building. This exterior is surrounding by a gigantic order the Corinthian pilasters all set at slightly different angles to every other, in keeping with the ever-changing angles of the wall’s surface. Over them the substantial cornice ripples in a continuous band, providing the figure of maintaining the whole building in a state of compression.

St. Peter’s Basillica: Michelangelo draft the dome of St. Peter’s Basilica top top or before 1564, although it to be unfinished once he died.


Mannerist artists started to refuse the harmony and also ideal proportions the the Renaissance in favor of irrational settings, synthetic colors, unclear topic matters, and also elongated forms.

Learning Objectives

Describe the Mannerist style, exactly how it differs from the Renaissance, and also reasons why it emerged.

Key Takeaways

Key PointsMannerism come after the High Renaissance and before the Baroque.The artists that came a generation after ~ Raphael and also Michelangelo had a dilemma. They can not surpass the great works that had already been developed by Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and also Michelangelo. This is as soon as we begin to view Mannerism emerge.Jacopo da Pontormo (1494–1557) represents the change from the Renaissance come the Mannerist style.Key TermsMannerism: layout of art in Europe from c. 1520–1600. Mannerism come after the High Renaissance and before the Baroque. Not every artist painting throughout this duration is considered a Mannerist artist.

Mannerism is the name provided to a format of arts in Europe native c. 1520–1600. Mannerism come after the High Renaissance and before the Baroque. Not every artist painting throughout this period is thought about a Mannerist artist, however, and there is much debate among scholars over whether Mannerism have to be thought about a separate movement from the High Renaissance, or a stylistic phase of the High Renaissance. Mannerism will certainly be treated together a separate art movement right here as over there are many differences in between the High Renaissance and the Mannerist styles.


What renders a job-related of art Mannerist? very first we must understand the ideals and also goals that the Renaissance. Throughout the Renaissance artists were engaging through classical antiquity in a new way. In addition, they emerged theories on perspective, and in all methods strived to develop works of arts that to be perfect, harmonious, and showed right depictions the the herbal world. Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and also Michelangelo are considered the artist who reached the greatest success in art throughout the Renaissance.

The Renaissance emphasize harmony and also beauty and also no one might create an ext beautiful functions than the an excellent three artists listed above. The artists that came a generation after had actually a dilemma; they can not surpass the good works that had already been created by da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo. This is when we begin to see Mannerism emerge. Younger artist trying to perform something brand-new and different began to disapprove harmony and also ideal proportions in donate of irrational settings, man-made colors, unclear subject matters, and elongated forms.

Jacopo da Pontormo

Jacopo da Pontormo (1494–1557) represents the shift from the Renaissance to the Mannerist style. Take for instance his Deposition from the Cross, an altarpiece that was painted for a chapel in the Church the Santa Felicita, Florence. The numbers of Mary and Jesus show up to it is in a direct reference to Michelangelo’s Pieta. Return the work-related is referred to as a “Deposition,” over there is no cross. Scholars additionally refer to this work as the “Entombment” but there is no tomb. This absence of clarity ~ above subject issue is a hallmark of Mannerist painting. In addition, the setup is irrational, virtually as if the is no in this world, and also the colors are much from naturalistic. This work might not have actually been developed by a Renaissance artist. The Mannerist motion stresses different goals and this occupational of art by Pontormo demonstrates this new, and also different style.

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Pontormo, Deposition native the Cross, 1525-1528, Church that Santa Felicita, Florence: This occupational of art by Pontormo demonstrates the hallmarks of the Mannerist style: unclear topic matter, irrational setting, and also artificial colors.