Antennae (singular antenna) are paired appendages connected to the anterior-most segments of arthropods. In crustaceans, castle are existing on the very first two segments of the head, with the smaller pair well-known as antennules and also the bigger pair biramous (branched). All other arthropod groups, other than chelicerates and also proturans (which have none), have a single, uniramous pair of antennae, such together Myriapoda (millipedes, centipedes), Insecta (insects), and the die out Trilobita (trilobites).

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Arthropods (phylum Arthropoda) space invertebrates the are defined by the possession that a segmented body, a pair that jointed appendages on every segment, and an exoskeleton. The jointed appendages incorporate antennae and legs. The antennae space jointed at least at the base. There space a large diversity of forms, adding to the diversity the nature.

Arthropod antennae generally expand forward from the head. They room sensory organs, return the specific nature of what lock sense and also how they feeling it is no the exact same in all groups, nor always clear. Attributes may variously incorporate sensing touch, wait motion, heat, vibration (sound), and also especially olfaction (smell) or gustation (taste).

The indigenous antenna has also been used as a typical metaphor, "spiritual antenna," in a selection of religious and spirituality disciplines, including Christianity and Buddhism. Simply as antenna space sensory organs, spiritual antenna signify openness come a 6th sense, intuition, or spirituality reality.

Many crustaceans and insects have the right to regenerate antennas, and legs and also claws.



Insects are distinguished from other arthropods by having three bag of jointed legs; an abdomen the is divided into 11 segments and also lacks any kind of legs or wings; and also a human body separated right into three components (head, thorax, and also abdomen). They have actually one pair of antennae top top the head.

In insects, olfactory receptor on the antennae tie to odor molecules, consisting of pheromones. The neurons the possess this receptors signal this binding by sending activity potentials down their axons to the antennal lobe in the brain. Native there, neurons in the antennal lobes connect to mushroom body that determine the odor. The sum of the electric potentials of the antenna come a provided odor can be measured making use of an electroantenogram.

The three basic segments of the common insect antenna room the scape (base), the pedicel (stem), and also finally the flagellum, which regularly comprises numerous units recognized as flagellomeres. (The number of flagellomeres deserve to vary greatly, and is regularly of diagnostic importance.) True flagellomeres have actually a membranous articulation between them, but in many insects, particularly the much more primitive groups, the flagellum is entirely or partly composed that a flexible series of little annuli, which space not true flagellomeres. In numerous beetles and in the chalcidoid wasps, the apical flagellomeres kind a club, and the collective term because that the segments between the club and also the antennal base is the funicle (or funiculus). For classic reasons, in beetles that is the segments between the club and the scape, but in wasps, the is the segments in between the club and also the pedicel. In the groups with an ext uniform antennae (for example: Diplopoda), every segments are referred to as antennomeres. Some groups have a simple or otherwise modified apical or subapical bristle dubbed an arista (this may be particularly well-developed in various Diptera).


Crustaceans are the team of arthropods that consists of the acquainted crabs, lobsters, shrimps, barnacles, copepods, krill, water fleas, and crayfish.Crustaceans are identified by having actually branched (biramous) appendages, an exoskeleton comprised of chitin and also calcium, and paired appendages that act favor jaws, with three pairs of biting mouthparts.

Crustaceans are also characterized by two pairs the antennae that prolong in former of the mouth. The first pair space uniramous (single collection of segments attached end-to-end) and also are frequently referred come an antennules. The second pair space biramous, an interpretation that each antenna branches right into two, and also each branch is composed of a collection of segment attached end-to-end.

In most adults, the antenna room sensory organs, however they are used by the nauplius larva because that both feeding and swimming. The peculiar structure of the 2nd of the male anostracan permit it to be used to affix to a female together it swims in copulation (Hunter 1969). In some groups of crustaceans, such together the spiny lobsters and also slipper lobsters, the second antennae are enlarged, when in others, such together crabs, the antennae are decreased in size.


Russell-Hunter, W. D. 1969. A biological of greater Invertebrates. London: Macmillan Company.Schütz, S., B. Weissbecker, H. E. Hummel, K.H. Apel, H. Schmitz, and also H. Bleckmann. 1999. Insect antenna as a acting detector. Nature 398: 298-299.

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