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Born:April 20, 1808ParisFrance...(Show more)Died:January 9, 1873 (aged 64)England...(Show more)Title / Office:emperor (1852-1871), Francepresident (1851-1852), Francepresident (1848-1850), France...(Show more)Political Affiliation:Bonapartist...(Show more)House / Dynasty:Bonaparte family...(Show more)

Napoleon III to be the nephew the Napoleon I. He was president that the 2nd Republic the France indigenous 1850 to 1852 and also the emperor the France indigenous 1852 come 1870. He offered his nation two decades of prosperity under an authoritarian government yet finally led the to loss in the Franco-German War.

Napoleon III rule France together emperor from 1852 come 1870. The was likewise president of the 2nd Republic native 1850 to 1852.

Napoleon III married countess Eugénie de Montijo in January 1853. She, later on, came to have a an important influence ~ above Napoleon III"s foreign policy.

At the fight of Sedan, Napoleon III do the efforts in vain to accomplish his fatality amid his troops, but on September 2, 1870, the surrendered. He was deposed, and on September 4, France"s 3rd Republic to be proclaimed. Napoleon III was released by the Germans and went come live in England, and also he passed away there in 1873.

Napoleon III, likewise called (until 1852) Louis-Napoléon, in complete Charles-Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, (born April 20, 1808, Paris—died January 9, 1873, Chislehurst, Kent, England), nephew that Napoleon I, chairman of the second Republic that France (1850–52), and then emperor of the French (1852–70). He gave his country two years of prosperity under a stable, authoritarian government however finally led it to defeat in the Franco-German war (1870–71).

Youth in exile

He was the third son the Napoleon I’s brother Louis Bonaparte, who was king of Holland native 1806 come 1810, and his wife, Hortense de Beauharnais Bonaparte, stepdaughter the Napoleon I.

Louis-Napoléon’s childhood and also youth were spent largely in exile. His mother, favor all the Bonapartes, was banished indigenous France in 1815 after ~ the loss of Napoleon I. Eventually, she uncovered a brand-new home in Switzerland, where, in 1817, she bought the lock of Arenenberg. Of romantic disposition herself, she inspired young Louis-Napoléon with a longing for his shed fatherland, as well as with enthusiasm admiration of the genius that Napoleon I. After ~ attending a grammar college at Augsburg, Germany (1821–23), she “sweet stubborn boy” to be taught by private tutors. Throughout visits to relatives in southern Germany and Italy, he ended up being acquainted not just with various other exiled victim of the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy but also with the life of a suppressed people, such together those Italians who were living under Austrian and papal rule. That was, over all, interested in history and motivated by the idea of nationwide liberty. Accordingly, he took component in an not successful plot against the papal federal government in Rome in 1830 and also in the rebellion in central Italy in 1831, in which his beloved brothers perished. He self was conserved from the Austrian troops only by his mom bold intervention.

Claim to the throne

After the death in 1832 that his cousin the battle each other of Reichstadt (Napoleon I’s only son), Louis-Napoléon considered himself his family’s claimant to the French throne. To be far better prepared because that his task, he completed his armed forces training and pursued his researches of economic and also social problems. Soon after, he felt prepared to i have announced his very own writings ~ above political and also military subjects. In his pamphlet “Rêveries politiques” (1832), he asserted that only an emperor could give France both glory and also liberty. He hence wanted to do his surname known, propagate his ideas, and also recruit adherents. Convinced that together Napoleon’s nephew he would be famous with the French army, he vainly tried, ~ above October 30, 1836, to victory over the Strasbourg garrison for a coup d’état. King Louis-Philippe exiled him come the united States, indigenous which he to be recalled early on in 1837 through his mother’s critical illness. Expelled indigenous Switzerland in 1838, he settled in England.

In 1839 he published “Des idées napoléoniennes.” so far, Bonapartism had been nothing but a wistful reminiscing of previous beneficiaries of the empire or a romantic legend developed by those who were dissatisfied v the humdrum present. In his new booklet Louis-Napoléon make the efforts to change Bonapartism into a politics ideology. In doing so, that obeyed mystical inspirations and rationalism. To him, ideology and politics were the an outcome of reasonable reflection as well as of belief. The main exponent in background was, in his opinion, the good personality called by Providence and representing progress. Napoleon I had actually been together a man, also though he was not permitted to finish his work. But Napoleon, the “Messiah that the brand-new ideas,” was endured by the “Napoleonic idea,” for the “political creed,” prefer the spiritual creeds, had its martyrs and apostles. The Napoleonic idea to be a “social and industrial one, humanitarian and also encouraging trade,” that would “reconcile order and also freedom, the civil liberties of the people and the principles of authority.” Louis-Napoléon experienced it together his job to achieve this mission.

Landing with 56 followers, near Boulogne, France, on respectable 6, 1840, he to be again unsuccessful. The town’s garrison walk not join him. He was arrested, carried to trial, and also sentenced to “permanent confinement in a fortress.” at his “university that Ham” (the lock in i beg your pardon he to be held) he spent his time studying to fit self for his royal role. He corresponded with members the the French opposition and published posts in some of their newspapers. He also wrote several brochures, among them “Extinction du paupérisme” (1844), which won him some supporters ~ above the left. That was no until might 25, 1846, the he succeeded in escaping and also fleeing to an excellent Britain, where he waited for another chance come seize power.


On hearing of the outbreak of the revolution, in February 1848, he travelled to Paris but was sent ago by the provisional government. Few of his supporters, however, arranged a tiny Bonapartist party and also nominated him together their candidate because that the ingredient Assembly. On June 4 he was elected in four départements but, awaiting much more settled conditions, he refused to take it his seat. Running again in September, that was elected in five départements, and after his arrival in Paris he shed no time in prepare to operation for the presidency. He was sustained by the newly founded Party the Order, which consisted of adherents of the Bourbons, Louis-Philippe, and also Catholics. Lacking a suitable candidate, they regarded Louis-Napoléon—not a experienced parliamentarian but a well-known figure—as a advantageous tool.

He used, currently on a big scale, the sort of propaganda that had won that elections before. Because of his name and also his descent, the Emperor’s nephew captivated the voters. Evoking the Napoleonic legend with its memories of nationwide glory, Louis-Napoléon promised come bring earlier those days in time of peace. That succeeded also in recommending himself to every team of the population by promising to safeguard their details interests. He promised “order” and also “prosperity” come the center class and the farmers and assistance come the poor. In December 1848 he was the just candidate to attain votes—totalling 5,434,226—from among all great of the population.

He take it office, identified to complimentary himself from dependence on the Party of Order, i m sorry had likewise won the parliamentary poll of may 1849. The federal government sent a military expedition to aid the Pope reconquer Rome. At residence it deprived active Republicans of their government positions and limited their liberties, but the President can rely top top only about a dozen members that the nationwide Assembly that were Bonapartists. Prudently broadening his strength by making use of every right the structure granted him, Louis-Napoléon quickly obtained crucial positions in the management and in the army for his adherents. ~ above October 31, he flourished for the an initial time in appointing a room consisting of men depending an ext on him 보다 on the nationwide Assembly. By travelling v the nation he gained vast popularity. Moreover, he offered the disfranchisement of 3,000,000 electors the the poorer great by the nationwide Assembly in 1850 and an economic recession in 1851 as a pretext because that agitating against the parties and for advertising himself as the “strong man” versus the hazard of a nonexistent revolution.

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The structure forbade the reelection the the president after expiration that his four-year term, and when Louis-Napoléon realized the he might not obtain the three-fourths majority necessary for a review of the constitution he brought out a coup d’état top top December 2. Just the republic dared to withstand him. Top top December 4 castle were beat in street fighting in Paris, just as they were in other towns and also in part regions. Arrests and deportations numbered in the thousands. Louis-Napoléon liquified the legislature Assembly and also decreed a new constitution, which among other provisions restored universal suffrage. A plebiscite approved the brand-new constitution. Urged by his success, that held an additional plebiscite in November 1852 and also was evidenced as emperor after the resolution of the Senate worrying the restitution the the empire. Failing to obtain the hand that a princess of same birth, Napoleon III married the countess Eugénie de Montijo in January 1853.