Ionic Bonding and also Electron Transfer

An ionic bond results from the deliver of an electron indigenous a steel atom to a non-metal atom.

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Key Takeaways

Key PointsIonic bonds are formed between cations and anions.A cation is formed when a steel ion loses a valence electron while an anion is developed when a non-metal gains a valence electron. They both attain a an ext stable electronic configuration v this exchange.Ionic solids form crystalline lattices, or repeating trends of atoms, through high melt points, and are typically soluble in water.Key Termselectrolyte: one ionic compound which dissolves in H2O, making the result solution qualified of conducting electricity.electronegativity: The tendency of an atom to lure electrons to itself.cation: A positively charged ion.anion: A negatively charged ion.

Ionic Bonds

Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bond in i m sorry valence electron are lost from one atom and gained by another. This exchange outcomes in a more stable, noble gas electronic configuration because that both atom involved. One ionic bond is based on attractive electrostatic forces between two ion of the contrary charge.

Cations and Anions

Ionic binding involve a cation and also an anion. The bond is developed when an atom, commonly a metal, loser an electron or electrons, and also becomes a hopeful ion, or cation. An additional atom, commonly a non-metal, is may be to get the electron(s) to become a an unfavorable ion, or anion.

One example of one ionic bond is the formation of salt fluoride, NaF, indigenous a salt atom and a fluorine atom. In this reaction, the sodium atom loses its single valence electron come the fluorine atom, which has just enough space to accept it. The ions developed are oppositely charged and are attracted to one another due come electrostatic forces.


Formation the NaF: an electron is transferred from Na to F. The resulting Na+ and also F– ions space electrically attractive to every other.


At the macroscopic scale, ionic compounds kind lattices, space crystalline solids under typical conditions, and also have high melt points. Many of this solids are soluble in H2O and also conduct electrical energy when dissolved. The ability to conduct power in systems is why this substances are called electrolytes. Table salt, NaCl, is a great example that this form of compound.

Ionic bonds different from covalent bonds. Both types result in the stable digital states associated with the noble gases. However, in covalent bonds, the electrons are shared in between the 2 atoms. All ionic bonds have actually some covalent character, yet the larger the difference in electronegativity between the two atoms, the higher the ionic character of the interaction.


Ionic Bonding – YouTube: In this video, Paul Andersen explains how ionic solids type when cations and also anions are attracted.


Lattice Energy

Lattice energy is a measure up of the bond toughness in one ionic compound.


Learning Objectives

Describe lattice energy and also the factors that impact it


Key Takeaways

Key PointsLattice energy is identified as the energy required to separate a mole of one ionic solid right into gaseous ions.Lattice power cannot be measured empirically, yet it have the right to be calculated making use of electrostatics or estimated using the Born-Haber cycle.Two main factors that contribute to the magnitude of the lattice power are the charge and also radius the the bonded ions.Key Termsexothermic reaction: A procedure which releases heat into that surroundings.lattice energy: The amount of energy released upon formation of a crystalline ionic hard from gas ions.

Definition that Lattice Energy

Lattice power is an estimate of the bond strength in ionic compounds. That is characterized as the heat of formation for ion of opposite fee in the gas phase to incorporate into an ionic solid. As an example, the lattice energy of salt chloride, NaCl, is the energy released as soon as gaseous Na+ and also Cl– ions come with each other to type a lattice of alternate ions in the NaCl crystal.

\textNa^+ (g) + \textCl^- (g) \rightarrow \textNaCl (s) \;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\; \Delta H=-787.3\text kJ/mol

The an unfavorable sign that the energy is indicative of an exothermic reaction.

Alternatively, lattice energy can be assumed of as the energy required to different a mole of an ionic solid into the gaseous type of its ions (that is, the turning back of the reaction displayed above).


NaCl Crystalline Lattice: Sodium ions (Na+) and also chloride(Cl–) ions, illustrated in purple and green respectively, alternating in the crystal lattice of solid NaCl.


Alternatively, lattice energy can be believed of as the power required to separate a mole of one ionic solid right into the gaseous type of its ions (that is, the reverse of the reaction displayed above).

Lattice energy cannot be established experimentally because of the challenge in isolating gas ions. The energy value have the right to be estimated using the Born-Haber cycle, or it have the right to be calculate theoretically v an electrostatic check of the crystal structure.

Factors influence Lattice Energy

In 1918, Born and Lande presented the adhering to model for lattice energy:

E = - \frac N_AMz^+z^-e^24 \pi \epsilon_o r_o (1-\frac 1n)

In this equation, NA is Avogadro’s constant; M is the Madelung constant, which counts on the crystal geometry; z+ is the charge number of the cation; z– is the charge number of the anion; e is the elementary charge of the electron; n is the Born exponent, a characteristic of the compressibility that the solid; \epsilon _o is the permittivity of free space; and r0 is the street to the closestly ion.

This model emphasizes two main factors that contribute to the lattice power of an ionic solid: the charge on the ions, and the radius, or size, that the ions. The effect of those factors is:

as the charge of the ions increases, the lattice power increasesas the size of the ions increases, the lattice power decreases

Lattice energies are also important in predicting the solubility of ionic solids in H2O. Ionic compounds with smaller lattice energies tend to be more soluble in H2O.


Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe fee on the cations and also anions in an ionic compound deserve to be determined by the loss or gain of valence electrons important in stimulate to accomplish stable, noble gas electronic configurations.The number of cations and anions that are merged in one ionic link is the simplest ratio of totality integers that deserve to be merged to reach electrical neutrality.The cation precedes the anion in both the written type and the formula.Key Termsnoble gas: any kind of of the aspects of team 18 the the routine table, which are monatomic and, v very limited exceptions, inert, or non-reactive.electrically neutral: A net charge of zero, i m sorry occurs when an atom or molecule/compound has actually no surplus or deficit of electrons.empirical formula: The most basic whole-number ratio between facets in a formula of a compound.polyatomic ion: one ion created of number of atoms.

Ionic Compounds

An ionic bond is created through the deliver of one or an ext valence electrons, generally from a metal to a non-metal, which produces a cation and an anion that room bound with each other by one attractive electrostatic force. ~ above a macroscopic scale, ionic compounds, together as salt chloride (NaCl), form a crystalline lattice and also are solids at common temperatures and pressures.


Crystalline Lattice: salt chloride crystal lattice


The fee on the cations and anions is established by the variety of electrons compelled to accomplish stable noble gas digital configurations. The ionic ingredient is then defined by the need that the resulting link be electrically neutral overall.

For example, to incorporate magnesium (Mg) and also bromine (Br) to gain an ionic compound, we very first note the electronic configurations of these atoms (valence level in shown in italics):

Mg: 1s22s22p63s2

Br: 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p5

In order to accomplish noble gas configurations, the magnesium atom demands to shed its two valence electrons, if the bromine atom, which has actually 7 valence electrons, calls for one added electron to fill its external shell. Therefore, for the resulting compound to be neutral, two bromine anions must combine with one magnesium cation to form magnesium bromide (MgBr2). In addition, though any ratio that 2 bromine atom to 1 magnesium atom will meet the two demands above, the formula for ionic link is frequently presented as the empirical formula, or the easiest whole-number proportion of atoms with optimistic integers.

Note that the cation always precedes the anion both in written form and in formulas. In the composed form, if the cation name is generally the same as the element, the suffix of single-atom anions is readjusted to –ide, as in the situation of salt chloride. If the anion is a polyatomic ion, that is suffix have the right to vary, but is typically either –ate or –ite,as in the instances of salt phosphate and calcium nitrite, depending upon the identity of the ion.

More examples:

lithium fluoride: Li+ and F– incorporate to form LiFcalcium chloride: Ca2+ and also Cl– integrate to kind CaCl2iron (II) oxide: Fe2+ and also O2- integrate to kind FeOaluminum sulfide: Al3+ and also S2- combine to kind Al2S3sodium sulfate: Na+ and SO42- incorporate to type Na2SO4ammonium phosphate: NH4+ and also PO43- incorporate to type (NH4)3PO4potassium chlorite: K+ and ClO2– combine to type KClO2

Video Summary


Key Takeaways

Key PointsIonic bonding is presented together the complete transfer that valence electrons, generally from a metal to a non-metal.In reality, electron thickness remains shared between the constituent atoms, an interpretation all bonds have actually some covalent character.The ionic or covalent nature the a link is figured out by the loved one electronegativities that the atoms involved.Key Termspolar covalent bond: A covalent shortcut that has a partial ionic personality to it, together a result of the difference in electronegativity between the two bonding atoms.electronegativity: A measure of the tendency of an atom to entice electrons come itself.covalent character: The partial sharing of electrons between atoms that have an ionic bond.

Ionic vs Covalent Bonding

Chemical link are typically classified by the bonds in between constituent atoms. There room multiple type of attractive forces, consisting of covalent, ionic, and also metallic bonds. Ionic bonding models are generally presented as the finish loss or obtain of one or much more valence electron from a steel to a nonmetal, leading to cations and also anions the are held together by attractive electrostatic forces.


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Ionic bonding: The development of one ionic bond in between lithium and fluorine to kind LiF.


Example that a polar covalent bond: when a carbon atom develops a bond through fluorine, they share a pair the electrons. However, since fluorine is much more highly electronegative 보다 carbon, it attracts that shared electron pair closer come itself and thus create an electrical dipole. The lowercase greek delta written above the atoms is provided to indicate the presence of partial charges. This link is considered to have qualities of both covalent and also ionic bonds.


In reality, the bond between these atoms is more facility than this design illustrates. The bond created between any kind of two atoms is no a purely ionic bond. All bonding interactions have some covalent character due to the fact that the electron thickness remains shared between the atoms. The degree of ionic versus covalent personality of a link is determined by the distinction in electronegativity in between the constituent atoms. The bigger the difference, the much more ionic the nature that the bond. In the standard presentation, bonds room designated together ionic when the ionic element is better than the covalent facet of the bond. Binding that loss in between the two extremes, having actually both ionic and covalent character, are classified as polar covalent bonds. Such bonds are thought of as consisting of partially charged hopeful and an adverse poles.

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Though ionic and covalent character stand for points follow me a continuum, this designations room frequently useful in understanding and also comparing the macroscopic properties of ionic and covalent compounds. For example, ionic compounds typically have higher boiling and melting points, and they are additionally usually more soluble in water than covalent compounds.