published on June 21, 2019 through Shona McCombes. revised on November 27, 2020.

Proofreading means carefully checking because that errors in a text prior to it is released or shared. The is the really last phase of the writing process, once you deal with minor spelling and also punctuation mistakes, typos, formatting issues and also inconsistencies.

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Proofreading is vital for any kind of text that will be mutual with one audience, whether it’s an academic paper, a project application, an online article, or a print flyer. Depending on your skills and budget, friend can select to proofread the message yourself or to hire a professional.

Table of contents

Proofreading example

In the posting industry, proofreaders usually check a published “proof copy” the the text and mark correction using devoted proofreading marks. In other fields, though, experienced proofreaders regularly work through digital texts and make corrections straight using the track changes feature in Microsoft native or Google Docs.

Proofreading vs editing

Editing and also proofreading are different steps in the procedure of amendment a text. Editing and enhancing can involve significant changes to content, structure and language, yet proofreading focuses only on minor errors and also inconsistencies.

Often a text will walk through numerous stages that editing prior to it is proofread. The table listed below shows some usual steps in the modifying process.

The four stages of editing and also proofreadingType that editingWhat it involvesStep 1: content editingStep 2: line editingStep 3: Copy editingStep 4: Proofreading
Revising very early draft that a text, often making far-ranging changes to the content and moving, including or deleting whole sections (also well-known as developmental or substantive editing).
Revising the usage of language to communicate your story, ideas, or debates as successfully as possible.

This can involve transforming words, phrases and also sentences and also restructuring paragraphs to improve the circulation of the text.

Polishing individual sentence to ensure correct grammar, clear syntax, and stylistic consistency, often complying with the rules of a details style overview (such as APA or MLA).

Copy editors don’t adjust the contents of a text, yet if a sentence or paragraph is pass out or awkward, they deserve to work through the writer to improve it.

Carefully check for any kind of remaining errors, such as misspelled words, misplaced punctuation, and also stylistic inconsistencies.

In publish publishing, proofreaders are likewise responsible for checking the formatting (e.g. Web page numbers and also line spacing).

Do I must go with every stage?

It relies on the type and size of text. Girlfriend don’t must strictly follow the division of tasks displayed above, but a good piece of creating will nearly always go with a similar procedure of revising, editing and also proofreading.

In the timeless publishing process, the step are plainly divided, with different professionals responsible because that each revision. A separate proofread that the final print variation is necessary, especially because brand-new typographical errors have the right to be introduced during production.

However, in texts that don’t must be formatted because that mass printing, over there is often more overlap between the steps. Some editorial services integrate copy editing and proofreading into a single stage (sometimes called proof-editing), whereby grammar, syntax and style room addressed at the same time as minor spelling and punctuation errors.


Proofreading tips and tricks

Basic proofreading an abilities are necessary for anyone who writes. For daily texts, together as service reports, blogs, or college papers, there room some methods you have the right to use to proofread efficiently and also effectively before sharing your work.

Edit your writing first

Before you get to the final stage that proofreading, make sure you’ve completely revised and edited your work. Yes sir no suggest spending time addressing minor errors if you could later remove totality sections or rewrite paragraphs. Only proofread once you’ve got a completed last draft the you’re happy with.

Take a break from the text

When you’ve to be reading and also rereading the same words for hrs or days, the becomes lot harder to notice mistakes. Prior to proofreading, collection your job-related aside because that a when so that you have the right to look at it with fresh eyes.

Ideally you need to wait at the very least a work or two prior to final proofreading, yet if you’re on a chop deadline, also a fifty percent hour break have the right to help.

Proofread a printout

Seeing her words ~ above a printed page is one more useful strategy because that noticing things that can have escaped your attention on the screen. If the last version will certainly be printed, this is likewise a good chance to check your formatting is correct and consistent top top the page.

Use digital shortcuts

While reading from publish can assist you point out errors, word processing software can assist you solve them efficiently. Many obviously, run a spell examine – yet don’t depend on the computer to record every mistake.

If you notification that you’ve consistently misspelled a specific word, inconsistently capitalized a term, or switched between UK and also US English, you have the right to use the Find and also Replace role to fix the exact same mistake transparent the document.

Be careful, though, and also don’t usage “replace all”. Click through and check every replacement to avoid accidentally adding much more errors!

Learn from her mistakes

Pay fist to the errors that store recurring in the text. This can aid you prevent them in future.

Knowing what come look the end for is the most difficult part that proofreading. You will do it probably an alert obvious typos, but subtle mistakes in grammar and punctuation can be harder to recognize. The table listed below shows some of the most common errors to look out for.

What to watch the end for once proofreadingSpelling and word choice confusionsMisplaced punctuationStylistic inconsistencyFormatting issues
Confusions in between homophones (e.g. there/they’re/their)Misuse that prepositions
Incorrect usage of apostrophes
Inconsistent i indentation and also spacingMissing or misplaced web page numbers, headers and also footers

Choosing a proofreading service

If you lack confidence in your composed English, or if you simply want come ensure girlfriend haven’t to let go anything in critical document, you can want to consider using a experienced proofreading service.

There room two key options: you can hire a freelance proofreader, or you can send your paper to a proofreading and also editing company. Over there are assorted things to consider when selecting a service.

Do friend only need proofreading or also editing?

It’s vital to have a clear idea of exactly how much work-related your text requires. World often think lock only require proofreading when, in reality, the text would advantage from part level of editing as well.

If you send a proofreader a file full of grammar mistakes, confuse sentences, and also difficult-to-follow paragraphs, castle might decrease the project or recommend a various service.

Many freelancers and also companies sell both editing and proofreading, either separately (with separate pricing) or linked into one service. Make sure you understand specifically what sort of changes are included. Will the editor only correct young errors, or will they likewise comment on azer phrasings and structural issues?

Should the proofreader be committed in your form of document?

Many different types of records require proofreading: from literary novels to technological reports, from doctor dissertations come promotional flyers. The best an option of business is normally one that’s committed in your type of document.

While proofreaders and also copy editors normally don’t need experienced knowledge the the text’s content, the procedure will be smoother if her proofreader is acquainted with the rules and conventions of the genre you’re functioning in.

How much does proofreading cost?

The cost of proofreading varies widely. The price depends partly on the proofreader’s location and also level of experience, the form and size of text, and also the turnaround time. Rates are generally calculated every word or every hour. If the service also focuses ~ above formatting, it might be priced per page.

Proofreading rates by native count

Proofreading and editing suppliers tend to have a collection per-word rate with various prices based upon the come back time. On average, you deserve to expect to pay $0.01–$0.05 every word (or approximately $2–4 every page), however services that encompass editing and proofreading will expense more. You deserve to usually inspect in advance exactly exactly how much it will expense you.

Proofreading hourly rates

Many freelancers fee an hourly rate, which way the price will vary based on the quality and complexity of the document. Hourly rates deserve to be anywhere between $20 and also $50 every hour. Be certain to talk about the pricing and also get a quote in advancement – you might not realize just just how long that will take to thoroughly proofread her text.

How lengthy does proofreading take?

You should try to leave plenty of time because that editing and proofreading, however if you have actually a hard deadline, it’s essential to discover a service that can supply on time.

Most suppliers offer various options of deadline, however it’s best to plan a minimum that 24 hrs for proofreading. The price will usually be lower if you have the right to wait much longer to have your file returned.

For really long documents, it can not be feasible to complete the project in 24 hours, specifically if you also need editing and enhancing services. For merged proofreading and also copy editing, you deserve to expect an experienced editor come complete around 10,000–15,000 native in a solitary day.

How can you examine the quality and also reliability that the service?

Like every little thing on the internet, the top quality of proofreading services varies widely. Execute your research prior to you pick one. There room a few things you can check:

Qualifications: execute they have expert training and also experience? If you’re utilizing a company, just how do castle select and train proofreaders?Customer service: space they conveniently contactable and responsive to inquiries?Complaints policy: what happens if you’re not happy with the job? can you gain a refund or a 2nd edit?Choosing a proofreading serviceTypeAdvantagesDisadvantagesAutomated proofreadersFreelance proofreadersProofreading companies
Free or relatively cheapInstant proofreadingUnreliable for catching all mistakesRisk that introducing new errors if not used carefully
You can choose exactly that you occupational withYou have the right to discuss and also negotiate the job directlyNo top quality controlOften longer turnaround timesThe price and deadline may not be addressed in advance
Upfront pricing (usually by word count)Fast turnaround and guaranteed deadlinesStandardized training and also quality controlServices space usually fixed and non-negotiableOften no direct call with the proofreader

Recommended proofreading service supplies proofreading services for academic and study-related documents, consisting of essays, papers, theses, dissertations, reports, and proposals.

The basic service combine proofreading and also copy modifying at a price of $0.017 per word. You deserve to choose in between a 24-hour, 3-day, or 7-day turnaround time. is rated 4.9 on Trustpilot, v 2,137 reviews for this reason far.

Frequently request questions around proofreading

Editing and also proofreading are various steps in the procedure of amendment a text.

Editing come first, and can involve major changes come content, structure and language. The first stages of editing are regularly done by writer themselves, while a skilled editor makes the final improvements to grammar and style (for example, by improving sentence structure and also word choice).

Proofreading is the last stage of check a text before it is published or shared. It focuses on correcting minor errors and inconsistencies (for example, in punctuation and capitalization). Proofreaders often also check for formatting issues, particularly in print publishing.

Whether you’re posting a blog, submitting a research study paper, or also just writing an important email, there space a couple of techniques you can use to make certain it’s error-free:

Take a break: set your work-related aside because that at least a couple of hours so the you can look at it v fresh eyes.Proofread a printout: Staring in ~ a display for too long can reason fatigue – sit down through a pen and file to inspect the last version.

If you desire to be confident that vital text is error-free, it might be worth picking a professional proofreading organization instead.

The price of proofreading counts on the form and size of text, the come back time, and the level of services required. Many proofreading service providers charge every word or page, if freelancers periodically charge one hourly rate.

For proofreading alone, which involves only simple corrections of typos and formatting mistakes, you could pay as tiny as $0.01 per word, but in plenty of cases, your text will additionally require some level the editing, which expenses slightly more.

It’s often feasible to purchase linked proofreading and editing services and also calculate the price in advancement based on her requirements.

There are numerous different courses to becoming a experienced proofreader or editor. The important qualifications depend on the field – to it is in an scholastic or scientific proofreader, because that example, friend will need at least a university level in a relevant subject.

For most proofreading jobs, experience and also demonstrated an abilities are more important than certain qualifications. Often your skills will be experiment as component of the applications process.

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To learn helpful proofreading skills, girlfriend can select to take a course through a professional organization such as the culture for Editors and Proofreaders. Alternatively, you can use to carriers that offer dedicated on-the-job maintain programmes, such together the Academy.