Summarizing means giving a concise overview of a text’s main points in your own words. A review is always much much shorter than the original text.

You are watching: What is the second step in creating a summary?

Writing a summary does not involve critiquing or examining the source—you must simply provide a clear, objective, accurate account that the most important information and ideas, without copying any type of text from the original and also without lacking any the the crucial points.


When come summarize

There are many situations in which you might have to summary an write-up or various other source:

As a stand-alone assignment to present you’ve interpreted the material.To keep notes the will assist you psychic what you’ve read.

When you’re composing an scholastic text favor an essay, research study paper, or dissertation, you’ll connect with various other researchers’ work in a variety of ways. Occasionally you could use a quick quote to assistance your point; periodically you could paraphrase a few sentences or paragraphs.

But it’s often appropriate to summary a whole short article or chapter if the is particularly relevant to your very own research, or to administer an synopsis of a resource before you analysis or critique it.

In any type of case, the score of summarizing is to provide your reader a clear expertise of the initial source. Monitor the 4 steps outline below to create a an excellent summary.

Step 1: review the text

You must read the article an ext than once to make sure you’ve thoroughly interpreted it. That often effective to check out in three stages:

Scan the write-up quickly to acquire a sense of the topic and overall shape.Read the post carefully, highlighting essential points and taking notes as you read.Skim the write-up again to check you’ve construed the vital points, and re-read any specifically important or challenging passages.

There space some simple tricks you have the right to use to determine the key points together you read:

Start by reading the abstract—this already contains the author’s own summary of your work, and also it speak you what to mean from the article.Pay fist to headings and subheadings—these should offer you a an excellent sense the what each component is about.Read the introduction and also the conclusion together and compare them: what did the author set out to do, and also what to be the outcome?

Here"s why college student love keolistravelservices.com"s proofreading services


Trustpilot

Discover proofreading & editing


Step 2: rest the message down into sections

To make the text much more manageable and understand its sub-points, break it down right into smaller parts.

If the message is a scientific file that adheres to a conventional empirical structure, that is probably already organized into plainly marked sections, usually including an introduction, methods, results, and discussion.

Other species of posts may not be explicitly split into sections. Yet most articles and also essays will certainly be structured around a collection of sub-points or themes.

Try composing a indigenous or phrase in the margin beside each paragraph that explains the paragraph’s content. Climate you deserve to see in ~ a glance what each component of the short article focuses on. If numerous paragraphs cover similar or associated topics, friend may group them together in sections.

Step 3: identify the an essential points in each section

Now it’s time go v each component and pick out the most important points. What does your reader require to understand to know the all at once argument or conclusion the the article?

Keep in mind that a review does no involve paraphrasing every solitary paragraph that the article. Her goal is come extract the important points, leaving out anything that deserve to be taken into consideration background information or supplementary detail.

In a clinical article, there space some easy concerns you deserve to ask to recognize the key points in each part:

IntroductionMethodsResultsDiscussion/conclusion
What type of study was done?How was data built up and analyzed?
What to be the most necessary findings?Were the hypotheses supported?
What is the as whole answer come the research question?How go the writer explain this results?What room the implications of the results?Are there any important limitations?Are there any an essential recommendations?

If the write-up takes a various form, you might have to think an ext carefully about what points room most crucial for the leader to understand its argument.

In this case, pay particular attention to the thesis statement—the main claim the the author wants us to accept, which usually appears in the introduction—and the object sentences the signal the main idea of each paragraph.

Step 4: compose the summary

Now that you recognize the key points the the article aims to communicate, you must put lock in your own words.

To avoid plagiarism and also show you’ve taken the article, it’s important to effectively paraphrase the author’s ideas. Do not copy and also paste components of the article, not even just a sentence or two.

The best means to execute this is to placed the write-up aside and also write out your own understanding of the author’s key points.

Let’s take it a look at an example. Below, we summarize this article, which scientifically investigates the old saying “an apple a job keeps the physician away.”

Example of a full write-up summary
IntroductionStart by presenting the article's topic and also the research concern it set out to answer." data-kb-color="blue">Davis et al. (2015) collection out to empirically check the well-known saying “an apple a day keeps the medical professional away.” apologize are regularly used to represent a healthy lifestyle, and research has presented their nutritional properties could be beneficial for various elements of health. The authors’ unique approach is to take the speak literally and ask: do human being who eat apples use health care services less frequently? If there is certainly such a relationship, castle suggest, cultivating apple intake could assist reduce health care costs.

MethodsBriefly synopsis the research methods used, relenten the resource of the data and explaining just how the variables were measured." data-kb-color="green">The study offered publicly obtainable cross-sectional data native the nationwide Health and also Nutrition examination Survey. Participants to be categorized as either to apologize eaters or non-apple eaters based on their self-reported apple usage in an typical 24-hour period. Lock were likewise categorized together either preventing or not staying clear of the use of health care services in the past year. The data was statistically analyzed to test whether there to be an association between apple consumption and also several dependency variables: doctor visits, hospital stays, use of mental wellness services, and also use the prescription medication.

ResultsSummarize the most relevant results." data-kb-color="blue">Although apple eaters were slightly more likely to have actually avoided doctor visits, this partnership was not statistically far-reaching after adjusting for miscellaneous relevant factors. No association was found in between apple consumption and hospital remains or mental health service use. However, apologize eaters were discovered to be slightly much more likely to have actually avoided using prescription medication. ImplicationsMention the potential ramifications of this results." data-kb-color="green">Based on these results, the writer conclude the an to apologize a work does not keep the physician away, however it might keep the pharmacist away. They imply that this finding might have ramifications for reducing health care costs, considering the high annual costs that prescription medication and the inexpensiveness of apples.

LimitationsDescribe the study's limitations." data-kb-color="blue">However, the authors additionally note several limitations of the study: many importantly, that apple eaters are likely to different from non-apple eaters in methods that may have confounded the outcomes (for example, to apologize eaters might be more likely to it is in health-conscious). RecommendationsSummarize the authors' main recommendations." data-kb-color="green">To establish any causal relationship in between apple consumption and also avoidance of medication, castle recommend experimental research.


Click come expand

An article an introduction like the over would be proper for a stand-alone an introduction assignment. However, oftentimes, you’ll want to provide an even more concise summary of one article.

For example, in a literature review or research paper, you might want to summary summarize this study as component of a broader discussion of assorted sources. In this case, we deserve to boil our an overview down also further to incorporate only the most relevant information.

Example that a concise article summary
Using nationwide survey data, Davis et al. (2015) tested the assertion the “an apologize a job keeps the doctor away” and also did not find statistically significant evidence in assistance of this hypothesis. While world who spend apples to be slightly much less likely to usage prescription medications, the study was can not to show a causal relationship in between these variables.


When summarizing as component of a larger text, it’s essential to properly mention the resource of the summary. The precise format for citing depends on your citation style, but it usually has an in-text citation and also a complete reference at the end of your paper.

You deserve to easily develop your citations and also references in APA or MLA making use of our free Citation Generators.

APA quote Generator MLA citation Generator

Step 5: check the summary versus the article

Finally, review through the article once an ext to for sure that:

You’ve accurately stood for the author’s workYou can not use missed any type of essential informationThe phrasing is not too similar to any type of sentences in the original.

If she summarizing lots of short articles as component of your very own work, it’s frequently a good idea to usage a plagiarism checker come double-check the your message is fully original and also properly cited. Simply be sure to usage one that’s safe and also reliable.

Plagiarism Checker comparison

Frequently inquiry questions about summarizing


A review is a brief overview that the main points the an write-up or various other source, written completely in your own words.

See more: How To Solve The Tile Puzzle In Riddle School 5 Red And Blue Tile


A review is constantly much shorter than the initial text. The length of a review can range from simply a couple of sentences to numerous paragraphs; it relies on the length of the write-up you’re summarizing, and on the purpose of the summary.