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Grade 4 Music concept lesson 2: dual Sharps, dual Flats & Enharmonic Equivalents
Double SharpsThe spicy symbol (#) raises the pitch of a keep in mind by a semitone (or "half step"). D# is one semitone greater than D, and F# is one semitone higher than F.
Double sharps advanced the key of a keep in mind by two semitones (or a "whole step"), and the dual sharp is printed as a sort of sophisticated cross, like this:
When you create them by hand, you have the right to just write a regular cross, like an X.
This note is G dual sharp:
In the very same way, a twin flat lowers the key of a keep in mind by two semitones (a totality step). Over there is no one-of-a-kind symbol for a dual flat, we simply write two flat signs near to every other, like this:
This keep in mind is E double flat:
Why perform we need dual sharps and flats?
Double sharps are very common. We need them once we compose music in some minor keys, once those keys contain a lot of sharps. You"ll learn much more about this in class three.
Double flats are much less usual - they room usually used when a piece of music is modulating (in the procedure of changing key).
Cancelling double Sharps and also Flats
Double flats and also sharps impact any succeeding notes in the exact same bar that the same pitch, simply like solitary flats and sharps. Yet let"s say you have a D twin sharp adhered to by a D sharp. There space two ways you can notate this:You can write a single sharp or level on the D#, or you can add a natural sign prior to the sharp/flat on the D#
Both of these techniques are acceptable:
Some people consider the to it is in a bit "old fashioned" or "untidy" to usage the second an approach to cancel an accidental. Friend will probably see the in many printed music, however.
If you should write a organic note after a double sharp/flat, just write the note with a solitary natural sign:
You don"t must write two natural signs, one is enough (but 2 is likewise ok).
"Enharmonic equivalent" might sound complicated, however it"s in reality a very an easy idea.
Let"s begin with straightforward note - F sharp. We recognize that F spicy is one semitone (half step) higher than F (natural). Yet we also know the it"s one semitone lower than G natural, so us could likewise call the note G flat. One enharmonic indistinguishable is simply another means to "spell" the very same note. F sharp and also G level are "enharmonic equivalents".
Enharmonic equivalents are regularly used once we change crucial within a piece.
Some typical enharmonic equivalents room C#/Db, D#/Eb, G#/Ab and also A#/Bb. These are the black color notes on a piano keyboard.
Slightly trickier, these room white notes on the piano: E/Fb, E#/F, B/Cb and also B#/C.
All the note with dual sharps and also flats likewise have enharmonic equivalents: C##/D, D##/E, F##/G, G##/A and also A##/B, and also for the flats, C/Dbb, D/Ebb, F/Gbb, G/Abb and also A/Bbb.
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Remember that as soon as you write scales, you deserve to only usage each letter name once (except for the tonic). This method that you need to be mindful to pick the correct enharmonic equivalent. For example, in the range of G# minor, the 7th degree of the range is F##. One enharmonic equivalent of F## is G natural, yet you cannot compose G herbal in a G# young scale, since the letter surname is currently used.
In the Exam
In the grade 4 exam, you will be request to surname the enharmonic equivalent of one or two notes. It"s usually much easier to execute this if you have the right to imagine a piano keyboard. If you uncover it difficult to imagine in her head, sketch an octave of a mini keyboard out ~ above the scrap file you"re noted with in the exam room.