Key principles

The attractions in between the protons and electrons of atoms can reason an electron to move completely from one atom come the other. As soon as an atom loser or benefit an electron, that is referred to as an ion. The atom the loses one electron i do not care a positive ion.The atom that gains an electron i do not care a an adverse ion.A positive and negative ion lure each various other and kind an ionic bond.

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Students will certainly look in ~ animations and make illustrations of the ionic bonding of salt chloride (NaCl). College student will see that both ionic and covalent bonding start with the attractions of protons and also electrons in between different atoms. Yet in ionic bonding, electrons room transferred native one atom to the other and also not common like in covalent bonding. College student will usage Styrofoam balls to make models that the ionic bonding in salt chloride (salt).


Students will be able to explain the process of the formation of ions and ionic bonds.


Download the student activity sheet, and also distribute one every student as soon as specified in the activity. The activity sheet will serve together the “Evaluate” ingredient of every 5-E lesson plan.


Be certain you and also the students wear correctly fitting goggles.

Materials for Each Group

Black paperSaltCup through salt native evaporated saltwaterMagnifier permanent marker

Materials because that Each Student

2 small Styrofoam balls2 large Styrofoam balls2 toothpicks

Note: In an ionically external inspection substance such together NaCl, the smallest proportion of optimistic and an adverse ions bonded together is dubbed a “formula unit” rather than a “molecule.” Technically speaking, the ax “molecule” refers to two or much more atoms that space bonded together covalently, not ionically. For simplicity, you can want to usage the term “molecule” because that both covalently and ionically bonded substances.


Show an computer animation to present the process of ionic bonding.

Project the animation Ionic shortcut in salt chloride.

Remind students the in covalent bonding, atom share electrons. Yet there is another kind of bonding where atoms don’t share, yet instead either take or give up electrons. This is referred to as ionic bonding. This computer animation shows a an extremely simplified version of exactly how sodium and also chloride ions space formed.

Note: In stimulate to leveling the design of ionic bonding, a solitary atom the sodium and chlorine space shown. In reality, the chlorine atom would certainly be external inspection to one more chlorine atom as component of the gas Cl2. The salt atom would certainly be among billions the trillions of sodium atoms bonded together as a solid. The mix of this substances is a complicated reaction between the atom of the two substances. The animation shows single separated atoms to highlight the idea of just how ions and ionic bonds room formed.

Explain what happens throughout the animation.

Tell students that the attraction that the proton in the sodium and chlorine for the other atom’s electrons brings the atom closer together. Chlorine has a stronger attraction because that electrons 보다 sodium (shown by the more thick arrow). At some suggest during this process, one electron from the salt is transferred to the chlorine. The salt loses an electron and the chlorine gains an electron.

Tell college student that as soon as an atom benefit or loser an electron, it i do not care an ion.

Sodium loses an electron, leaving it with 11 protons, yet only 10 electrons. Due to the fact that it has 1 much more proton 보다 electrons, sodium has actually a charge of +1, making the a hopeful ion.Chlorine profit an electron, leaving it through 17 protons and also 18 electrons. Due to the fact that it has actually 1 more electron than protons, chlorine has a fee of −1, making it a an unfavorable ion. When ions form, atoms obtain or shed electrons till their outer energy level is full.For example, as soon as sodium loser its one outer electron from the third energy level, the 2nd level becomes the new outer energy level and also is full. Because these electrons are closer to the nucleus, lock are much more tightly held and also will not leave. When chlorine benefit an electron, its third energy level becomes full. Secondary electron cannot join, since it would need to come in at the fourth energy level. This far from the nucleus, the electron would certainly not feel sufficient attraction indigenous the protons to be stable. Climate the confident sodium ion and negative chloride ion tempt each other and kind an ionic bond. The ions are an ext stable once they room bonded than they were together individual atoms.

Have students explain the process of ionic bonding in salt chloride on their task sheet.

Give each student an activity sheet.

Have students write a short caption under each picture to explain the procedure of covalent bonding and also answer the first three questions. The remainder of the task sheet will certainly either be completed together a class, in groups, or individually relying on your instructions.

Project the picture Ionic bond in sodium chloride.

Review with students the process of ionic bonding covered in the animation.

Help students compose a quick caption next to each photo to explain the process of ionic bonding in sodium and also chloride ions.

Sodium and also chlorine atom are near each other.The proton of the two atoms tempt the electrons of the various other atom. The thicker arrow shows the chlorine has actually a stronger attraction for electrons than sodium has.During the interactions in between the atoms, the electron in sodium"s outer energy level is moved to the outer power level of the chlorine atom.Since sodium lost an electron, it has 11 protons, but only 10 electrons. This renders sodium a hopeful ion through a charge of +1. Since chlorine gained an electron it has actually 17 protons and also 18 electrons. This provides chloride a an adverse ion v a charge of −1.The optimistic sodium ion and an unfavorable chloride ion tempt one another. They do an ionic link and type the ionic link NaCl.Explore

Have students observe actual sodium chloride crystals and relate their form to the molecule model.

This two-part activity will aid students view the relationship in between the arrangement of ion in a model of a salt chloride crystal and also the cubic form of actual sodium chloride crystals.

Teacher preparation

The day prior to the lesson, dissolve about 10 grams the salt in 50 mL that water. Use Petri bowl or use scissors to reduced down 5 or 6 clean plastic cups to do shallow plastic dishes. Pour enough saltwater to simply cover the bottom of every dish (1 because that each group). Leaving the bowl overnight to evaporate for this reason that new salt crystals will certainly be produced.

Materials because that each group

Black paperSaltCup through salt from evaporated saltwaterMagnifier permanent marker

Materials because that each student

2 little Styrofoam balls2 large Styrofoam balls2 toothpicks

Procedure, part 1

Observe sodium chloride crystals.Place a couple of grains the salt on a item of black color paper. Usage your magnifier come look very closely at the salt.

Have students construct a 3-dimensional model of sodium chloride.

Each student will make 1 unit of salt chloride. College student in each group will put their sodium chloride units together. Friend can aid the groups combine their structures right into a course model the a sodium chloride crystal.

Procedure, part 2

Make NaCl units.Use the marker to placed a “−” top top the large balls which stand for chloride ions.Use the mite to placed a “+” on the tiny balls, which stand for sodium ions.Break two toothpicks in half. Use one of the half-toothpicks to connect the centers that the small and big ions with each other to do a unit of salt chloride (NaCl). Do the same thing v the other tiny and large ball.

Use another half-toothpick to affix the 2 NaCl systems in a straight line as shown.

Put NaCl ions together to do one class of ions.Contribute your line of ion to her group and also arrange them to do a 4×4 square that ions.

Use half-toothpicks to connect the ends of every line to organize the ion together. Girlfriend only need to place toothpicks in the balls at the end of each line.

Build a class sodium chloride crystal.

Give her group’s layer of ions to her teacher. Her teacher will stack these to build a version of a salt chloride crystal.


Point the end that everywhere you watch on the crystal, a salt ion and also a chloride ion are always surrounded by the oppositely charged ion. These opposite charges host the ions together in a crystal.


Ask students

Based on the means sodium and also chloride ions bond together, why room salt crystals shaped choose cubes?The size and arrangement of the ions creates a cube ~ above the molecular level. Since the sample repeats over and over again in the very same way, the shape stays the same also when the crystal becomes the normal size that we deserve to see.Extend

Show students how calcium and also chlorine atom bond to type the ionic compound calcium chloride.

Tell students that there is an additional common substance called calcium chloride (CaCl2). The is the salt that is supplied on icy sidewalks and roads. Define that once calcium and chlorine reaction they create ions, favor sodium and also chlorine, yet the calcium ion is various from the salt ion.

Ask students:

What ions carry out you think CaCl2 is made of? One calcium ion and two chloride ions.

Project the animation Calcium chloride Ionic Bond.

Point the end that the calcium loses two electrons, coming to be a +2 ion. Every of the two chlorine atom gains one of these electrons, do them every a −1 ion. Aid students realize the 1 calcium ion bonds with 2 chloride ions to form calcium chloride (CaCl2), i beg your pardon is neutral.

Some atoms gain or lose much more than 1 electron. Calcium loser 2 electrons once it becomes an ion. As soon as ions come together to form an ionic bond, they constantly join in numbers that exactly cancel the end the optimistic and an adverse charge.

Project the photo Calcium chloride Ionic Bond.

Review through students the procedure of ionic bonding spanned in the animation.

Have students write a short caption in ~ each snapshot to describe the procedure of ionic bonding in sodium and also chloride ions.

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One calcium and two chlorine are close to each other.The protons of the calcium atom tempt the electrons from the chlorine atom. The proton of the 2 chlorine atoms entice the electron from the calcium atom much more strongly as presented by the more thickness arrows.During the interactions in between the atoms, the 2 electrons in calcium"s outer energy level space transferred come the outer power level of each of the chlorine atoms.Since calcium shed two electrons, it has actually 20 protons, however only 18 electrons. This makes calcium a confident ion through a charge of 2+. Due to the fact that each chlorine atom obtained an electron, they each have 17 protons and 18 electrons. This renders each chloride a negative ion with a charge of −1.Oppositely fee ions lure each other, creating an ionic bond. The bonded ions are an ext stable 보다 the individual atom were.