At the time of this composing there is no explanation ~ above wiktionary, and also searching the internet does not yield an answer, only much more instances of its use:


My intuition is that this is an outdated Latin abbreviation similar to "e.g." and also "i.e.". (Perhaps something choose verbis aliis?)

Edit: an ext examples from the same publication (Speijer, Sanskrit Syntax, 1886), pages 2, 32, and also 43:

शान्तं पापम्(v. A. malum absit) उषिताः स्मो ह वसतिम्(v. A. We have passed the night) कस्तेन सह तव स्नेह(v. A. How are girlfriend his friend?)

The gloss is an ext or less a translation of the Sanskrit. The just thing differentiating these translations from others (without "v. A.") is that they are a tad less literal.

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I am persuaded that this is not a problem of Sanskrit or grammar but of academic language of the so late 19th century. The message is riddled through Latin abbreviations that would have actually been instantly noticeable to the contemporary scholar.

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edited jan 12 "13 at 11:20

Andrew Leach♦
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asked january 11 "13 at 21:05

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4 answers 4

energetic earliest Votes
OED has under A:

15. Of miscellaneous words. c. Grammar. In kind a or (occas.) A. (a) adjective; (b) active (of a verb). Now rare. 1838 J. Bosworth Dict. Anglo-Saxon Lang. p. Ccvii, v. A. or act. verb active.

So v.a. means verb active.

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answered january 11 "13 in ~ 21:17

Andrew Leach♦Andrew Leach
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EDIT: ns think the confusion here is the your very first source and perhaps likewise your 2nd are utilizing the abbreviation to typical something different from what the 3rd one is using it for.

If you look in ~ the abbreviation in the first, and what castle are supplied for, the v.n. abbreviation is constantly attached come intransitive verbs. It transforms out intransitive verbs were as soon as referred to as neuter verbs, as displayed here native Webster’s revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913):

(b) Intransitive; as, a neuter verb.

The v.a. appears to be attached to transitive verbs. That is possible that these to be called energetic verbs because, due to the fact that they took a direct object, they could be developed into a passive. It is also possible that they are contrasting them v stative verbs. The same source as referenced over gives 3 possibilities:

(a) applied to a kind of the verb; -- protest to passive. See active voice, under Voice. (b) used to verb which assert that the topic acts ~ above or influence something else; transitive. (c) applied to all verbs the express action as distinct from mere visibility or state.

That source also uses v.s., which may be a stative verb, at the very least in the situation of beis, i beg your pardon it states is the 3s type of to be. However, it additionally uses it because that things favor bele to burn, conteyne to continue, etc. Therefore that might not be right.

It likewise has v. Imp., v. Impers., v. Aux., and v. Subst.. Considering it seems to be making use of v. Subst. space verbs that typical “are”, the v.s. as stative is probably wrong. As well as v.n. and v.a., it has actually these:

AFFERIS, EFFEIRS, v. Impers. ARN, v. Subst. Are, the third pers. Plural; AUCHT, (gutt.) v. Imp. Ought, should. Come BECK, BEK, v. S. Come BEIR, BERE, v. S. Come roar, to make BEIS, v. S. Be, is; third p. Sing. Subj. S. To BELE, v. S. "To burn, to blaze." BENE, v. Subst. Are. BYRD, v. Imp. The behoved, that became. BOOST, v. Imp. Behoved, to be under BUT, v. Imp. Expressive of necessity, S. That another, S. Native the E. V. Catch. To CONTEYNE, v. S. To continue. DOID, v. Imp. That becomes, Fr. Doit. GURDEN, v. 3 pl. Gird. ILD, v. Imp. Would certainly not. LYK, LIK, v. Impers. Lyk til us, it is in agreeable MEDIS, v. Impers. Avails. METHINK, v. Impers. Methinks. MIRKLES, v. Pl. The radical pipeline of MOT, v. Aux. May. MUN, v. Aux. Must. TID, TYD, v. Impers. Happened. WALD, v. Aux. WAR, v. Imp. War him, befal him. WORDIS, v. Imp. It wordis, the behoves, it worthis, v. Imp. The becomes.

The third source is clearly using the abbreviation in a different way, one that method “meaning” or “roughly” or “for”. I execute not think it represents “version alternate” there, but I have actually been not correct before and doubtless shall shortly be again.

Original posting. When v.a. does typical this, it at most uses to the third source only.

The abbreviation v.a. represents the Latin vices agens, an interpretation “acting in location of”. The is, quite literally “vice agent”. Offered in this method it need to be check out as for or meaning in

There is also v.a.l., i m sorry is vices agens legati, but that would certainly not be offered here.

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Adolf Berger’s Encyclopedic dictionary of roman Law (1953) covers this and also much more.