The cap is a caret-shaped symbol typically placed on optimal of variables to give them unique meaning. The prize

is voiced "
-hat" (or periodically as "
-roof") in mathematics, yet is much more commonly recognized as the circumflex in grammars (Bringhurst 1997, p.274).

You are watching: What does hat mean in statistics

Uses of the cap in math include:

1. To denote a unit vector (e.g.,

) or an estimator (e.g.,

2. To signify an estimator, e.g.,

for the sample mean.

3. Together the expansion rate that

in hat calculus, e.g.,
(Jones 1965, who however used the symbol
rather of a hat).

SEE ALSO: Bar, Caret, Estimator, Macron, Unit Vector

Bringhurst, R. The elements of Typographic Style, second ed. Suggest Roberts, WA: Hartley and also Marks, 1997.

Jones, R.W. "The structure of an easy General Equilibrium Models."J. Pol. Econ. 73, 557-572, 1965.

Referenced top top|Alpha: Hat

Weisstein, Eric W. "Hat." native web Resource. Https:// web Resources

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