The cap is a caret-shaped symbol typically placed on optimal of variables to give them unique meaning. The prize

is voiced "-hat" (or periodically as "-roof") in mathematics, yet is much more commonly recognized as the circumflex in grammars (Bringhurst 1997, p.274).You are watching: What does hat mean in statistics

Uses of the cap in math include:

1. To denote a unit vector (e.g.,

) or an estimator (e.g., ).2. To signify an estimator, e.g.,

for the sample mean.3. Together the expansion rate that

in hat calculus, e.g., (Jones 1965, who however used the symbol rather of a hat).SEE ALSO: Bar, Caret, Estimator, Macron, Unit Vector

REFERENCES:

Bringhurst, R. The elements of Typographic Style, second ed. Suggest Roberts, WA: Hartley and also Marks, 1997.

Jones, R.W. "The structure of an easy General Equilibrium Models."J. Pol. Econ. **73**, 557-572, 1965.

Referenced top top keolistravelservices.com|Alpha: Hat

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