The cap is a caret-shaped symbol typically placed on optimal of variables to give them unique meaning. The prize

*
is voiced "
*
-hat" (or periodically as "
*
-roof") in mathematics, yet is much more commonly recognized as the circumflex in grammars (Bringhurst 1997, p.274).

You are watching: What does hat mean in statistics

Uses of the cap in math include:

1. To denote a unit vector (e.g.,

*
) or an estimator (e.g.,
*
).

2. To signify an estimator, e.g.,

*
for the sample mean.

3. Together the expansion rate that

*
in hat calculus, e.g.,
*
(Jones 1965, who however used the symbol
*
rather of a hat).


SEE ALSO: Bar, Caret, Estimator, Macron, Unit Vector
REFERENCES:

Bringhurst, R. The elements of Typographic Style, second ed. Suggest Roberts, WA: Hartley and also Marks, 1997.

Jones, R.W. "The structure of an easy General Equilibrium Models."J. Pol. Econ. 73, 557-572, 1965.


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Weisstein, Eric W. "Hat." native keolistravelservices.com--Akeolistravelservices.com web Resource. Https://keolistravelservices.com/Hat.html


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