The second Party System

The second Party System, consisting mainly of the Democrats and Whigs, contributed to climbing levels of voter investment and also partisanship.

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Learning Objectives

Summarize the origins, development, and vital characteristics of the second Party System

Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe 2nd Party System developed in 1828, with enhancing levels the voter interest and partisan identification leading right into the presidential election.The second Party system is the very first and just party device in which the two significant parties stayed on around equal footing in every region.The mechanism reflected and also shaped the political, social, economic, and social currents of the Jacksonian Era until thrived by the third Party system in 1854.Key TermsJacksonian Democracy: The political activity toward greater democracy for the usual man typified through American politician, Andrew Jackson, and also his supporters.Second Party System: A term offered by historians and political scientists to name the political framework existing in the United says from around 1828 to 1854.Whig Party: A political team of the united States during the era of Jacksonian democracy; thought about integral come the second Party System and also operating native the at an early stage 1830s to the mid-1850s, it was created in opposition to the policies of president Andrew Jackson.


A turning point in American political background occurred in 1828,when Andrew Jackson was chosen over the incumbent man Quincy Adams. While autonomous practices had been in ascendance due to the fact that 1800, the year additionally saw the further unfolding of a autonomous spirit in the united States. Pendant of Jackson called themselves democrats or the Democracy, offering birth to the democratic Party and also thus inaugurating the second Party System. The second Party device existed in the United claims from around 1828 come 1854.

The American political system underwent fundamental change after ~ 1820 under the rubric the Jacksonian democracy. If Jackson self did not initiate the changes, he involved symbolize numerous of the transforms that took place. For the very first time, politics assumed a central role in voters’ lives. Before then, deference come upper-class elites and general indifference regularly had defined local politics across the country. The suffrage legislations were not totally at fault; rather, couple of men were interested in politics prior to 1828, and fewer quiet voted or became engaged due to the fact that politics did no seem important.

Changes complied with the emotional shock the the panic of 1819 and the 1828 choice of Andrew Jackson, who had a charismatic personality and controversial policies. The 1828 choice year was defined by increasing levels that voter attention as demonstrated by election Day turnout, rallies, increasingly partisan newspapers, and also a higher degree the voter loyalty to your party. Through 1840, projects were increasingly identified by appeals to the typical man, v elections generating greater voter participation than they previously had. The democratization the American national politics was well underway.

Major football player of the 2nd Party System

The significant parties throughout this time included the democratic Party, led by Andrew Jackson, and also the Whig Party, assembled by Henry Clay indigenous the nationwide Republicans and other enemies of Jackson. Martin valve Buren, john C. Calhoun, James K. Polk, Lewis Cass, and also Stephen Douglas are amongst the ideal known autonomous figures that this period. Prominent Whig politicians contained Daniel Webster, wilhelm H. Seward, and also Thurlow Weed.

The Whig Party activate from the beforehand 1830s to the mid-1850s and also was developed in opposition come the plans of president Andrew Jackson and his democratic Party. In particular, the Whigs sustained the prominence of Congress over the presidency and also favored a routine of modernization and economic protectionism.

Minor parties included the Anti-Masonic Party, which was an essential innovator indigenous 1827 come 1834 and also flourished in only those says with a weak 2nd party; the abolitionist Liberty Party that the 1840s; and also the antislavery complimentary Soil Party, energetic in the 1848 and 1852 elections. The second Party device reflected and also shaped the political, social, economic, and social currents the the Jacksonian Era until succeeded by the third Party mechanism in 1854.


According to chronicler Richard P. McCormick, that is is renowned for his scholarship top top the 2nd Party System, the framework was formed over a 15-year duration that varied by state, and also it was developed by leaders trying to success the presidency through contenders building their own nationwide coalitions. Regional effects strongly influenced its developments, with the Adams pressures strongest in brand-new England, for example, and the Jacksonians strongest in the Southwest.

This period marked the first time two-party politics were prolonged to the South and West, both of which had previously to be one-party regions. The second Party device was likewise the first, and also remains the only, party system in which the two significant parties continued to be on around equal footing in every region. The very same two parties showed up in every state and contested both electoral votes and state offices. Since of this local balance, the 2nd Party system was vulnerable to region-specific worries such as slavery.

The election of 1828 and also the personality Issue

The election of 1828 between John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson saw a big number of character attacks and also increased partisanship.

Learning Objectives

Summarize the circumstances leading approximately the choice of 1828 and also the function character play in the election

Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe election of 1828 to be a rematch in between the incumbent president, john Quincy Adams, and also the runner-up in the 1824 election, Andrew Jackson.The election of 1828 was critical turning point in American politics; some historians and political scientists argue the it introduced the prototype for modern American politics and the two-party mechanism that we recognize today.The choice is also notable because that the personal attacks that developed between the opposing candidates, who had a long and also controversial political history together, dating ago to the hotly challenged election that 1824.Jackson winner an overwhelming success over Adams, capturing 56 percent the the popular vote and 68 percent that the electoral vote and also bringing the democratic Party into power.Key TermsSecond Party System: A term supplied by historians and political scientists to define the political system existing in the United claims from about 1828 come 1854.corrupt bargain: A term introduce to three historic incidents in American history in which political covenant was identified by conference or presidential actions that numerous viewed to be corruption from various standpoints.

Introduction: The election of 1828

The U.S. Presidential election of 1828 featured a rematch in between John Quincy Adams, the incumbent president, and also Andrew Jackson, the runner-up in the 1824 election. V no other significant candidates, Jackson and his chief ally, Martin valve Buren, consolidated their bases in the southern and brand-new York and also easily beat Adams. The democratic Party obtained its strength from the existing supporters of Jackson and also their coalition through the supporters of Crawford (the Old republicans ) and Vice chairman Calhoun.

The election significant the climb of Jacksonian democracy top top the national stage and the transition from the an initial Party System, of which Jeffersonian democracy to be characteristic, to the 2nd Party System. Historians conflict the significance of the election, v many suggesting that it significant the beginning of modern-day American politics and the development of the two-party system.


The nomination of the democratic Party to be Andrew Jackson, former senator native Tennessee. Jackson welcomed the incumbent evil president, man C. Calhoun, as his to run mate. Jackson’s supporters dubbed themselves “Democrats,” hence marking the development of Jefferson’s Democratic- Republican Party right into the modern Democratic Party.

The nationwide Republican Party nomination was man Quincy Adams (of Massachusetts), the incumbent chairman of the unified States. Adams accepted Secretary of the Treasury Richard rush of Pennsylvania together his angry presidential running mate. Adams supporters called themselves “National Republicans,” and were antecedents of the Whig Party the the 1830s and, later, the Republican Party.

General Election


The 1828 campaign differed substantially from earlier presidential contests due to the fact that of the party organization that supported Andrew Jackson. Jackson and also his supporters reminded voter of the “corrupt bargain” of 1824. Lock framed it as the job-related of a tiny group of politics elites, who, exhilaration in a self-serving manner and also ignoring the will of the majority, determined who would lead the nation. Native Nashville, Tennessee, the Jackson campaign organized supporters roughly the nation through editorials in partisan newspapers and also other publications. Pro-Jackson papers heralded the “hero of new Orleans” when denouncing Adams. Despite he did not wage one election campaign filled through public appearances, Jackson did provide one major campaign speech in new Orleans top top January 8, the anniversary that the loss of the british in 1815. He additionally engaged in ring of discussion with political leaders who pertained to his home, the Hermitage, in Nashville.

At the neighborhood level, Jackson’s supporters worked to bring in together many brand-new voters as possible. Rallies, parades, and also other rituals more broadcast the post that Jackson stood for the typical man, that stood in comparison to the corrupt upstream backing Adams and Clay. Autonomous organizations referred to as “Hickory Clubs,” a tribute come Jackson’s nickname, “Old Hickory,” likewise worked tirelessly come ensure his election.

The project was significant by an superior amount the mudslinging. Jackson was assaulted for his marriage, his court martial and execution the deserters, his massacres that American Indian villages, and his habit that dueling. It was charged the Adams, if serving together minister to Russia, had actually surrendered one American maid girl come the appetites the the czar. Adams additionally was accused of making use of public funds to purchase gambling tools for the presidential residence; however, further investigation failed come substantiate this claims.


The selection of electors began on October 31, 1828, through elections in Ohio and Pennsylvania, and ended top top November 13 with elections in phibìc Carolina. The Electoral university met ~ above December 3.

Adams won the brand-new England states, new Jersey, and also Delaware. In addition, Adams choose up Maryland. Jackson won whatever else, however, recording 56 percent of the renowned vote and 68 percent the the electoral vote and resulting in an overwhelming win over Adams. As in 1800, when Jefferson had actually won end the Federalist incumbent, john Adams, the presidency passed to a brand-new political party, the Democrats. The election was the climax of several decades of widening democracy in the united States and also the finish of the older national politics of deference.

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Electoral college votes in the choice of 1828: This map illustrates the Electoral college votes because that Jackson and Adams because that each state. Jackson won the majority by a landslide, v Adams just winning the brand-new England states, brand-new Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland.