This tutorial describes the basic functions, operations, and characteristics that a computer. Find out the four significant functions that a computer through diagrams and examples.

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Taking data and instructions from a user, handling the data as per instructions, and also displaying or storing the processed data, room the four significant functions of a computer. These functions are likewise known as the entry function, procedure function, calculation function, and also storage function, respectively.

The complying with diagram shows an instance of this functions.


To administer these functions, a computer system uses its components or devices. Usually, contents of a computer are design to execute only among these 4 functions. But, some committed components or devices are designed to carry out two, three or all 4 functions. Because that example, a difficult disk have the right to perform three functions: entry (when documents are read), storage (when papers are saved), and also output (when files are written).

Components or gadgets of a computer, based on the duty in i beg your pardon they space used, have the right to be classified right into four major types: the intake devices, output devices, warehouse devices, and processing devices. For example, if a component procedures the offered instructions, the component is known as the handling device. Or if a an equipment displays the processed data, the maker is known as the output device.

Input function and devices

A computer is a data processing machine. The does nothing till a user (or a script or a program) offers the data that needs to it is in processed and the instructions that tell it exactly how to process the data.

Any standard machine or component the a user provides to instruct a computer system is known as the traditional input device. In other words, a computer uses its conventional input tools or contents to acquire instructions indigenous a user.

The most usual input gadgets are the keyboard and also mouse. Nearly all contemporary computers have actually these devices. Other typical input tools are scanners, microphones, USB drives, and webcams.

Input data and instruction can also be created from a non-standard input maker such as the tough disk and CD/DVD. For example, a batch paper in the windows system might instruct the CPU to execute a program or a manuscript at a details time.

Installation disks room another an excellent example that non-standard entry devices. Usually, lock contain a script or one executable regimen that immediately starts the installation process as quickly as the disk is read.

Process role and devices

Once the data and instructions are got by the input function, the computer starts the handling function. In this function, a computer processes the received data according to the instructions.

To process the input data follow to the instructions, the computer system uses the CPU. A CPU is the key processing ingredient of a computer. It processes user instructions, executes scripts and also programs, and runs regulates of the OS that provide a platform because that installing and also using application software.

Other crucial processing contents are assistant processors. Auxiliary processors are also known together onboard processors. Auxiliary processors are used in tools to boost their functionalities. You deserve to think that an auxiliary processor as the personal CPU the a device.

Only contents or devices that provide the complicated functionality such together Graphics cards, I/O devices, and network user interface cards usage auxiliary processors. For example, if a user color etc an image, the auxiliary processor on the graphics map performs every calculations that call for in drawing the image on the display screen device.

The complying with image mirrors a sample of both a CPU and also an assistant processor.


The following table list the key differences between a CPU and an assistant processor.

CPUAuxiliary processor
A CPU is a compulsory component. Without it, a computer does no work.An auxiliary processor is one optional component.
A CPU is an separation, personal, instance component. It is installed independently in the system.An auxiliary processor is one integrated part of a device. It can’t be set up separately.
A CPU is design to execute all varieties of tasks.An auxiliary processor is designed to perform just a specific kind of task.

Output role and devices

After processing the input data, the CPU, assistant processor, or the process function sends the handle data come the output function or to the default or configured output device. By default, computer systems use monitors as the default output device.

Aside indigenous monitor, a selection of output devices are likewise available. Every output maker presents the processed data in a different form, because that example, a monitor, a printer, and also a speaker displays, prints, and plays the handle data, respectively.

A user, based on his requirement, can connect and also use two, 3 or much more output tools to the computer. Because that example, after ~ viewing the handle data, a user deserve to send it come the press for printing.

Storage function and devices

Storing data and also information is the fourth major function of a computer. This role allows us to conserve the handle data for later use. To save data and also information, a computer uses two varieties of storage components: temporary and also permanent.

Temporary storage components are used to save data temporarily. Data stored in a short-lived storage component is erased once the system is shutdown. Ram is a compulsory short-lived storage component. A computer uses the lamb to store the running applications and also their data.

Permanent storage components are offered to store data permanently. Data stored in a long-term storage ingredient is not erased when the mechanism is shutdown. The tough disk is the most typical permanent warehouse component. Usually, all computer systems have at the very least one difficult disk to store data. Other common permanent storage materials or tools are exterior drives, USB drives, and CD/DVD.

The complying with image shows an example of both species of warehouse components.


Storage devices are likewise used in the input and output functions, allowing data to be conserved (output function) and also then accessed again later (input function).


The following table lists a couple of sample actions along with the surname of devices and also functions that are used when they space performed.

A user running a text-editor program types the letter Z ~ above the keyboard. The key-board sends a password representing the letter Z to the CPU. KeyboardInput
The CPU processes the code and also determines what letter was typed. Then the CPU sends out instructions to the screen to display screen the letter Z.CPUProcess
The monitor displays the letter Z.MonitorOutput
The user clicks the Save button. The computer mouse sends a code representing the click.MouseInput
The CPU processes the code and determines what action was clicked. CPUProcess
The CPU conserves the record on the disk.

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Hard diskStorage

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