R.H. Whittaker offered the five Kingdom category for living organisms. The categorized life organisms based on multiple characteristics such as cellular structure, setting of nutrition, body organization, reproduction, phylogenetic relationship, etc. These 5 kingdoms to be Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and also Animalia.

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Let’s learn about the plant kingdom, i.e., Kingdom Plantae.

Let us have a in-depth look in ~ the plant kingdom notes provided here for the conceptual understanding that the topic.

Also read: Kingdom Animalia, Plantae and also Viruses

Plant Kingdom – Plantae

Kingdom Plantae contains all the plants. They space eukaryotic, multicellular and autotrophic organisms. The tree cell contains a rigid cell wall. Plants have actually chloroplast and chlorophyll pigment, i beg your pardon is required for photosynthesis.

Characteristics of Kindom Plantae

The tree kingdom has actually the complying with characteristic features:

They space non-motile.They make their own food therefore are called autotrophs.They reproduce asexually through vegetative propagation or sexually.These room multicellular eukaryotes. The tree cell has the outer cell wall and a large central vacuole.Plants contain photosynthesis pigments called chlorophyll existing in the plastids.They have various organelles for anchorage, reproduction, support and also photosynthesis.

Explore More: Photosynthesis.

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Classification of Kingdom Plantae

A plant kingdom is further classified right into subgroups. Classification is based upon the adhering to criteria:

Plant body: presence or lack of a well-differentiated tree body. E.g. Root, Stem and also Leaves.Vascular system: visibility or absence of a vascular mechanism for the transportation of water and also other substances. E.g. Phloem and also Xylem.Seed formation: presence or absence of flowers and seeds and also if the seeds room naked or enclosed in a fruit.

More come Read: Seed and also Fruit development – seeds Dispersal

The tree kingdom has been divide into five subgroups according to the above-mentioned criteria:



Thallophytes absence a well-differentiated body structure and the plant human body is thallus like.


Thallophytes: Primitive plants wherein the human body is not identified into stem, roots and also leaves

Thallophyta consists of plants with primitive and straightforward body structure. The plant body is thallus, they may be filamentous, colonial, branched or unbranched. Examples incorporate green algae, red algae and brown algae. Typical examples space Volvox, Fucus, Spirogyra, Chara, Polysiphonia, Ulothrix, etc.

Explore More: Thallophytes



Bryophytes: Small, non-vascular tree that choose moist environments

Bryophytes do not have actually vascular tissues. The tree body has root-like, stem-like and leaf-like structures. Bryophytes space terrestrial plants but known together “amphibians that the tree kingdom” as they require water for sexual reproduction. Lock are present in moist and shady places. Bryophyta contains mosses, hornworts and liverworts. Some of the common examples space Marchantia, Funaria, Sphagnum, Antheoceros, etc.

Extended Reading: Bryophyta


Pteridophytes have actually a well-differentiated plant body right into root, stem and also leaves. They have a vascular device for conduction that water and also other substances. Several of the usual examples room Selaginella, Equisetum, Pteris, etc.


Pteridophytes: Spore-dispersing vascular plants

More Details: Pteridophyta



Gymnosperms: Vascular plants the possess “exposed” seeds

Gymnosperms have actually a well-differentiated plant body and also vascular tissues. They bear naked seeds, i.e. Seeds are not enclosed within a fruit. Several of the usual examples that gymnosperms room Cycas, Pinus, Ephedra, etc.



Angiosperms: Vascular plants that possess special attributes such together flowers and also fruits

Angiosperms are seed-bearing vascular plants v a well-differentiated plant body. The seeds of angiosperms are enclosed in ~ the fruits. Angiosperms space widely distributed and vary significantly in size, e.g. Wolffia is tiny measuring about 0.1 cm and Eucalyptus tree are about 100 m tall. Angiosperms room further divided into monocotyledons and also dicotyledons follow to the number of cotyledons existing in the seeds. Some of the usual examples space mango, rose, tomato, onion, wheat, maize, etc.

Further Reading: Angiosperms

Cryptogams and also Phanerogams

The tree kingdom is additionally classified right into two groups:

Cryptogams – Non-flowering and non-seed bearing plants. E.g. Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta

Phanerogams – Flowering and also seed-bearing plants. E.g. Gymnosperms, Angiosperms

Also Read: Difference between Bryophytes and also Pteridophytes

To learn more about plant kingdom course 11, its characteristics and classification, discover BYJU’S biology.

Frequently inquiry Questions

Name the pigment responsible because that photosynthesis in plants.

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Chlorophyll is the colours responsible because that photosynthesis in plants.