bowl Tectonics and also Volcanic task

A volcano is a function in Earth"s crust where molten rock is squeezed out onto the Earth"s surface. In addition to molten rock, volcanoes likewise release gases, ash, and solid rock.

You are watching: Volcanoes most often occur at plate boundaries and _____.


A volcano is a attribute in Earth’s crust wherein molten absent is squeezed the end onto the Earth’s surface. This molten absent is dubbed magma as soon as it is beneath the surface and lava when it erupts, or operation out, native a volcano. Together with lava, volcanoes likewise release gases, ash, and solid rock.
Volcanoes come in countless different shapes and also sizes however are most frequently cone-shaped hills or mountains. Castle are uncovered throughout the world, creating ridges deep below the sea surface and mountains that room thousands of meters high. Around 1,900 volcanoes on earth are considered active, definition they display some level of occasional activity and are likely to erupt again. Plenty of others room dormant volcanoes, reflecting no existing signs of exploding but likely come become active at some suggest in the future. Rather are considered extinct.
Volcanoes are incredibly powerful agents of change. Eruptions deserve to create new landforms, but can likewise destroy every little thing in your path. About 350 million human being (or about one the end of every 20 people in the world) live in ~ the “danger range” that an energetic volcano. Volcanologists carefully monitor volcanoes for this reason they can better predict brewing eruptions and prepare nearby populations for potential volcanic risks that might endanger your safety.
Most volcanoes kind at the limits of Earth’s tectonic plates. This plates are large slabs the the Earth’s crust and also upper mantle, i beg your pardon fit together choose pieces of a puzzle. These plates room not fixed, however are constantly relocating at a an extremely slow rate. They relocate only a few centimeters per year. Sometimes, the key collide through one an additional or move apart. Volcanoes room most usual in these geologically energetic boundaries.
The two varieties of plate boundaries that are most most likely to develop volcanic activity are divergent bowl boundaries and also convergent key boundaries.
At a divergent boundary, tectonic plates move apart native one another. They never ever really separate because magma repetitively moves increase from the mantle into this boundary, building new plate product on both political parties of the key boundary.
The Atlantic ocean is home to a divergent bowl boundary, a place referred to as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Here, the north American and Eurasian tectonic bowl are moving in the opposite directions. Follow me the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, hot magma swells upward and also becomes component of the phibìc American and also Eurasian plates. The increase movement and also eventual cooling the this buoyant magma creates high ridges ~ above the s floor. This ridges space interconnected, forming a consistent volcanic mountain variety nearly 60,000 kilometers (37,000 miles)—the longest in the world.
Another divergent plate boundary is the eastern Pacific Rise, which separates the substantial Pacific plate indigenous the Nazca, Cocos, and also North American plates.
Vents and also fractures (also called fissures) in these mid-ocean ridges permit magma and also gases to escape into the ocean. This submarine volcanic activity accounts for approximately 75% the the average yearly volume of magma that reaches the Earth’s crust. Most submarine volcanoes are discovered on ridges hundreds of meters listed below the ocean surface.
Some s ridges reach the s surface and create landforms. The island that Iceland is a part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The diverging Eurasian and North American plates resulted in the eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull (in 2010) and Bardarbunga (in 2014). This eruptions were came before by far-reaching rifting and cracking ~ above the soil surface, i beg your pardon are likewise emblematic the diverging plate movement.
Of course, divergent plate boundaries likewise exist top top land. The east African Rift is an example of a single tectonic plate gift ripped in two. Along the Horn that Africa, the afri plate is tearing itself into what is sometimes referred to as the Nubian key (to the west, including most that the current African plate) and the Somali bowl (to the east, consisting of the Horn that Africa and the western Indian Ocean). Follow me this divergent bowl boundary space volcanoes such together Mount Nyiragongo, in the democratic Republic that Congo, and also Mount Kilimanjaro, in Kenya.
At a convergent plate boundary, tectonic plates relocate toward one another and also collide. Oftentimes, this collision forces the denser plate edge to subduct, or sink in ~ the bowl edge the is less dense. These subduction area can produce deep trenches. As the denser key edge move downward, the pressure and also temperature surrounding it increases, which causes changes come the plate that melt the mantle above, and also the melted rock rises v the plate, sometimes reaching its surface ar as part of a volcano. Over numerous years, the rising magma can develop a collection of volcanoes known as a volcano arc.
The bulk of volcano arcs deserve to be discovered in the Ring of Fire, a horseshoe-shaped cable of about 425 volcanoes the edges the Pacific Ocean. If you to be to drainpipe the water out of the Pacific Ocean, you would see a collection of deep canyons (trenches) to run parallel to corresponding volcanic islands and mountain ranges. The Aleutian Islands, stretching from Alaska to Russia in the Bering Sea, because that instance, run parallel come the Aleutian Trench, formed as the Pacific bowl subducts under the phibìc American plate. The Aleutian Islands have 27 of the united States’ 65 historically energetic volcanoes.
The mighty Andes mountains of southern America run parallel come the Peru-Chile Trench. These hills are continually built up as the Nazca key subducts under the southern American plate. The Andes Mountains incorporate the world’s highest energetic volcano, Nevados Ojos del Salado, i m sorry rises come 6,879 meter (over 22,500 feet) follow me the Chile-Argentina border.
For countless years, scientists have been do the efforts to define why some volcanoes exist thousands of kilometers far from tectonic plate boundaries.
The dominant theory, framed through Canadian geophysicist J. Tuzo Wilson in 1963, claims that these volcanoes are created by exceptionally hot locations fixed deep below Earth’s mantle. These warm spots space able to individually melt the tectonic plate above them, producing magma that erupts top top the peak of the plate.
In warm spots beneath the ocean, the tectonic task creates a volcano mound. Over millions of years, volcanic piles can grow until they reach sea level and create a volcanic island. The volcano island move as part of its tectonic plate. The warm spot remains put, however. Together the volcano move farther native the warm spot, it goes extinct and also eventually erodes ago into the ocean. A brand-new and energetic volcano develops over the warm spot, producing a constant cycle that volcanism—and a cable of volcanic archipelago tracing the tectonic plate’s movement over time.
For Wilson and also many scientists, the best example of hot spot volcanism is the Hawaiian Islands. Experts think this volcano chain of islands has actually been creating for at least 70 million years over a hot spot underneath the Pacific plate. Of all the lived in Hawaiian Islands, Kauai is situated farthest from the presumed hot spot and also has the most eroded and oldest volcanic rocks, dated at 5.5 million years. Meanwhile, on the “Big Island” that Hawaii—still fueled by the warm spot—the earliest rocks are less than 0.7 million year old and volcanic task continues come create brand-new land.
Hot spots can likewise create terrestrial volcanoes. The Yellowstone Supervolcano, for instance, sits end a warm spot in the middle of the north American plate, v a collection of old calderas stretching throughout southern Idaho. The Yellowstone hot spot fuels the geysers, hot springs, and other geologic activity at Yellowstone national Park, Wyoming.
While part data seem come prove Wilson’s hot spot theory, an ext recent clinical studies indicate that these warm spots may be uncovered at an ext shallow depth in the Earth’s mantle and also may migrate gradually over geologic time fairly than remain fixed in the exact same spot.
While volcanoes come in a range of shapes and also sizes, they every share a few key characteristics. Every volcanoes are connected to a reservoir of molten rock, called a magma chamber, listed below the surface ar of the Earth. Once pressure within the chamber builds up, the buoyant magma travels out a surface vent or series of vents, with a central interior pipe or collection of pipes. This eruptions, which differ in size, material, and also explosiveness, produce different varieties of volcanoes.
Stratovolcanoes are some of the most conveniently recognizable and imposing volcanoes, with steep, conic peaks climbing up to numerous thousand meters over the landscape. Likewise known together composite volcanoes, castle are consisted of of layers of lava, volcanic ash, and fragmented rocks. These layers are gathered over time together the volcano erupts through a vent or group of vents at the summit’s crater.
Mount Rainier is an superior stratovolcano that rises 4,392 meters (14,410 feet) over sea level just south the Seattle, Washington. Over the past fifty percent million years, mount Rainier has created a series of alternate lava eruptions and debris eruptions. This eruptions have provided Mount Rainier the standard layered structure and conic form of a composite volcano. The volcano’s height has likewise been sculpted down through a series of glaciers, offering it a craggy and also rugged shape.
Volcan de Fuego and also Acatenango room a pair the stratovolcanoes the stand more than 3,700 meter (12,000 feet) above sea level near Antigua, Guatemala. When the volcanoes are taken into consideration twins due to the fact that of their comparable shape and also size, they space made of different varieties of lava and have distinct eruption histories. While Acatenango erupts infrequently today, Fuego is thought about to be the most active volcano in main America, erupting an ext than 60 times since 1524.
Shield volcanoes space built nearly exclusively that lava, i m sorry flows out in every directions throughout an eruption. These flows, do of highly liquid basalt lava, spread over good distances and also cool in slim layers. End time, the layers develop up and also create a tenderness sloping dome that looks prefer a warrior’s shield. While they room not together eye-catching together their steep stratovolcano cousins, shield volcanoes are often much larger in volume because of your broad, expansive structure.
Shield volcanoes comprise the entirety of the Hawaiian Islands. The Kilauea and Mauna Loa shield volcanoes, located on the “Big Island” that Hawaii, rise from the s floor more than 4,500 meter (15,000 feet) below sea level. The summit the Mauna Loa stands at 4,168 meter (13,677 feet) over sea level and an ext than 8,500 meter (28,000 feet) over the ocean floor, making the the world’s largest energetic volcano—and, by some accounts, the world’s tallest mountain. The smaller volcano, Kilauea, has been erupting continuously since 1983, making it among the world’s most energetic volcanoes.
The Galapagos archipelago are additionally made up of a series of shield volcanoes. Isabela and Fernandina islands have actually flatter tops than other shield volcanoes due to the fact that lava erupts indigenous fissures approximately their tops and also along ridges at their bases. As a result, the volcanoes rise at the top and also grow exterior at the bottom—but not in the middle, making castle look prefer an “inverted soup bowl.”
Pyroclastic cones room the many prolific kind of volcano ~ above Earth. Castle can develop as part of stratovolcanoes, shield volcanoes, or independently. Additionally known together cinder cones, they type after violent eruptions blow lava right into the air. In the atmosphere, the lava pieces solidify and fall as “cinders” approximately a singular vent. Often developed from a solitary eruption or short series of eruptions, pyroclastic cones just stand in ~ heights of 10s of meter to numerous meters.
Parícutin, Mexico, is a distinct pyroclastic cone. It to be the an initial volcano to be studied because that its entire life cycle. Arising from a cornfield in 1943, Parícutin’s explosive eruptions led to it to reach 80% of its height of 424 meter (1,391 feet) during its very first year that activity. In the time, lava and ash hidden the nearby town of mountain Juan. End the following eight years, Parícutin constructed the remainder the its cone—and then went quiet. Geologists learned a good deal around the advancement of volcanoes in Parícutin’s short, nine-year life.
Lava domes are choose shield volcanoes in the they are constructed entirely that lava. This lava, however, is also thick and also sticky to move an excellent distances. It simply piles up approximately the volcano vent. Lava domes are often found on the summit or flanks that a volcano, yet they can additionally develop independently. Prefer pyroclastic cones, they just reach a few hundred meters, together they space formed during singular eruptions or sluggish lava releases.
One that the most iconic lava domes arisen after the terrible 1902 eruption of mountain Pelée on the island that Martinique. For virtually a year, a lava dome prospered out that a summit crater developed from the eruption, getting to a elevation of more than 300 meter (1,000 feet). Known as the Tower of Pelée, the obelisk-shaped structure was twice the elevation of the Washington Monument. The ultimately fell down into a pile of rubble after 11 month of growth.
Some volcanoes experience such large, explosive eruptions that they release many of the product in their magma chamber. This reasons the land about the erupting vent or vents come collapse inwardly, creating circular depressions referred to as calderas. Depending upon their intensity and also duration, volcano eruptions can produce calderas as much as 100 kilometers wide.
Crater Lake, Oregon, is in a caldera about 10 kilometers (6 miles) wide. Crater Lake’s caldera result from one eruption the occurred much more than 7,000 years ago. The volcano"s magma room collapsed, then filled v water indigenous rain and also snow, creating the lake. Crater Lake is the deepest lake in the unified States.
Deception Island, located off the shore of Antarctica, skilled a violent eruption roughly 10,000 year ago. The volcano summit collapsed, forming a caldera 7 kilometers (4.4 miles) broad and flooded with seawater. The caldera offers Deception Island that is horseshoe shape, which opens up to the sea with a narrow channel. Deception Island’s unique geologic structure provides it among the only locations in the people where s vessels deserve to sail directly into an energetic volcano.
Much like calderas, craters are depressions left ~ a volcano experience a big eruption. When calderas are developed by the collapse of product inside a volcano, craters are formed as products explode out native a volcano. Craters room usually much smaller 보다 calderas, only expanding to a best of around one kilometer (.62 mile) in diameter.
Many volcanoes have multiple craters caused by different eruptions. The Maly Semiachik volcano, situated on the Kamchatka Peninsula in far eastern Russia, has six craters at its summit. The youngest of this craters, Troitsky, filled in through water and snowmelt, creating a lake 140 meters (459 feet) deep. The lake is highly acidic, as volcanic gases continue to it is in released into the water native the energetic volcano below.
Lava lakes are likewise found in volcano craters. Erta Ale, a volcano in Ethiopia, has a lava lake in that summit crater. Lava lakes room where magma has bubbled up to the surface and pooled in a crater. Volcanologists have the right to fly over Erta Ale’s summit crater come see how the lava lake is behaving and also predict future behavior.
Volcanic eruptions are as diverse as volcanoes themselves—which is come say, very diverse! several of the ways volcanologists have classified these eruptions are based upon the heights lock reach, the types of products they eject, and the explosiveness of this ejections.
Hawaiian eruptions space the calmest eruption type. Lock are identified by secure lava eruptions known as lava fountains or fire fountains. Lava fountains are able to with heights of up to 2 kilometers (1.2 miles). The highly liquid lava connected with Hawaiian eruptions flows quickly away indigenous the volcano summit, often producing fiery rivers and also lakes that lava within depressions on the neighboring landscape.
These eruptions are named after the Hawaiian Islands, wherein they most often occur. Kilauea, which has been erupting continuously since 1983, has produced lava flows covering more than 100 square kilometers (37 square miles) top top the island the Hawaii. These flows continuously damage houses and communities in your path, while also adding new coastline come the island.
Strombolian eruptions are identified by short-lived outbursts of lava rather than stable fountaining. The lava is thicker and has a higher gas content 보다 that that Hawaiian eruptions. Huge gas bubbles climb from the magma chamber, pushing the pasty lava upward till the bubbles explode at the summit vent. This explosions deserve to reach heights approximately 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) although most don’t go higher than a few hundred meters into the air.
Strombolian eruptions are named after the Mediterranean island of Stromboli, Italy. Taken into consideration by numerous to be the most active volcano ~ above Earth, Stromboli has been erupting almost continuously because that 2,000 years. The island’s eruptions are practically always Strombolian in nature: small gas explosions eject blobs of lava right into the waiting a pair of times per hour.
Vulcanian eruptions space short-lived however much much more explosive 보다 Strombolian eruptions. Really thick lava reasons gas press to construct up in the magma chamber. When this press is ultimately released it creates canon-like explosions that deserve to travel faster than 350 meters per 2nd (800 miles per hour). Lava, rock, and also ash are propelled up come 20 kilometers (12.4 miles) in the air, although many eruption columns are between 5 and 10 kilometers high. These plumes of material have actually the ability to drift moderate distances away indigenous the eruption site.
The 2013 vulcanian eruption the Sakurajima, on the island of Kyushu, Japan, spanned the nearby city that Kagoshima in a thick coat the ash.
Reaching as high as 50 kilometers (35 miles) in the atmosphere, Plinian eruptions room the biggest of all eruption types. Much like vulcanian eruptions, they eject products at speed of hundreds of meters per second. Plinian eruptions, however, are more sustained 보다 the sneeze fits of vulcanian eruptions. These consistent eruptions an outcome from the volcano’s magma and also growing gas bubbles climbing at a similar velocity.
Plinian eruptions space the most destructive kind of eruption. They relax a deadly mixture of lava, ash, and volcanic rocks such as scoria and pumice, which can autumn kilometers away from the eruption site. Castle are additionally characterized through pyroclastic flow, a fluid mixture of broke up materials and extremely hot, toxic gases.
In 79 CE, a collection of Plinian eruptions from mountain Vesuvius buried the surrounding Roman cities of Pompeii and also Herculaneum (in what is this particular day Italy). The cities and their 13,000 residents were buried in volcanic ash and also rock. Rainfall mixed with the ash and created a concrete-like substance that kept the city for countless years.
Surtseyan eruptions take place where magma or lava interacts with water, most often when one undersea volcano reaches the s surface. One more term for this sort of interaction is a phreatomagmatic eruption. Once heated swiftly by lava, water flicker to vapor and increases violently, creating the many explosive of every eruption types. This wild interaction in between water and heat is able to fragment lava into an extremely fine seed of ash that have the right to reach heights the 20 kilometers (12.4 miles).
Tonga’s islands of Hunga Tonga and Hunga Ha"apai room actually the top of a single, big underwater volcano. In 2009, the volcano erupted for several days, causing heavy steam and ash come explode indigenous the water to altitudes of 5 kilometers (3.1 miles). If the eruptions killed all indicators of wildlife on and also around the islands, the also included hundreds the square meter of land to Hunga Ha’apai.
Volcanoes are some of Earth’s most potent organic hazards and also agents the change. They release enormous quantities of energy and also material, engaging organic processes that have the right to modify landscapes at a local, regional, and even an international scale.
Many volcano materials and also processes posture a danger to human, animal, and other environmental communities.
Volcanoes on regular basis release volcanic gases that can be danger at focused levels. Carbon dioxide and also fluorine can collect in floor or volcano ash, causing chop failure, animal death and also deformity, and human illness.
Volcanic eruptions can also release massive quantities of sulfur dioxide, i m sorry rises right into the stratosphere. There, it shows incoming solar radiation while absorbing outgoing soil radiation, leading to a cooling of the Earth’s temperature.
In excessive cases, this “volcanic winters” can reason crop failures and drastically influence weather. The 1815 eruption of mountain Tambora, Indonesia, cooled the average an international temperature through as lot as 3° Celsius (5.4° Fahrenheit), bring about the “year there is no a summer.”
The enormous energy of volcanic eruptions deserve to cause large landslides that move at speed of an ext than 100 kilometers per hour (60 miles per hour). Mount St. Helens, Washington, is a stratovolcano that had an explosive Plinian eruption in 1980. The eruption produced the largest landslide in tape-recorded history, extending a 36-kilometer (14-mile) area that land with ash and rocks. Reaching speeds of 50 come 80 meter (165 come 260 feet) per second, the landslide had sufficient power to surge end a ridge 400 meter (1,312 feet) high.
Landslides deserve to mix with neighboring rivers, ice, snow, or rain to develop watery mixtures called lahars. This mixture that water, rock, and debris create a sludge that deserve to obliterate virtually anything in its path. The 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia, caused tiny lahars of rock, ash, and also melted snow to circulation down into the bordering river valleys. The lahars gained momentum and also size as they travel the riverbeds, at some point destroying more than 5,000 homes and also killing much more than 23,000 people.
Explosive eruptions sometimes produce pyroclastic flows, a mixture of hot rock fragments and also toxic gases the move virtually like a fluid out and also away native the volcano. Reaching speeds higher than 80 kilometers every hour (50 miles per hour) and temperatures between 200-700° Celsius (392-1292° Fahrenheit), pyroclastic operation knock down, shatter, bury, or burn noþeles in their path.
Pyroclastic flows are responsible because that the haunting figures from Pompeii and Herculaneum, Italy. While countless scientists thought citizens of Pompeii suffocated to fatality from volcano gases released throughout Mount Vesuvius’ eruption in 79 CE, brand-new studies imply that lock actually died from too much heat produced by the volcano’s pyroclastic flow.
Volcanologist Giuseppe Mastrolorenzo and also the Italian national Institute because that Geophysics and Volcanology recently found that the pyroclastic circulation that reached Pompeii created temperatures of up to 300° Celsius (570° Fahrenheit). These too much temperatures room able to kill world in a portion of a second, leading to them come spasm in contorted postures choose those found among the plaster casts the Vesuvius’ victims.
Huge plumes of volcanic ash can spread over huge areas of the sky, transforming daylight into complete darkness and inhibiting air traffic. (During the eruption of Iceland’s Eyjafjallajökull in 2011, flights to and also from northern Europe to be suspended for much more than a week.) volcano ash conducts electricity when wet and also can contain concentrated levels of toxic materials, posing threats to people that come in close call with that on land.
The 1994 double eruption the Vulcan and Tavurvur in Papua new Guinea covered the adjacent city that Rabaul in a great of ash up to 75 centimeters (about 2 feet) deep. Rains turned the ash right into a cement-like substance the was heavy sufficient to fallen 80% of the buildings in the city.
Volcanic hazards have the right to be exceptionally dangerous to human life. In the United claims alone, 54 volcanoes room a very high or high danger to publicly safety. By closely monitoring volcanic activity, volcanologists have the right to warn people of impending eruptions. While these warnings room not precise predictions, they do carry out communities v the an important time they require to safeguard themselves versus volcanic hazards and ensure your safety.
Volcanologists predict volcanic activity by taking real-time measurements and also comparing them versus what happened in the past. They use a selection of instruments and also technologies to monitor temperatures, gas emissions, water levels, ground movements, and changes in the landscape. These dimensions paint a clear portrait that a volcano’s current state, i m sorry volcanologists then interpret against historical data. Volcanologists problem eruption warnings as soon as these measurements stray much from the norm or mirror those that came before a historical eruption.
Different countries use various systems to worry eruption warnings come the public. Every one of these equipment categorize their alerts based on the probability and also severity that an imminent eruption. Usual volcanic behavior is frequently represented through the number 1 or the color green, when an imminent and also potentially destructive eruption is commonly represented by the number 4 or the color red.
A number of international establishments lead the means in volcanic monitoring and also research, giving invaluable information to scientists, volcanologists, and the publicly alike. The Smithsonian Institution’s worldwide Volcanism Program records current task for every the volcanoes top top the world through publicly available data, reports, and images. The program additionally keeps the world’s only archive that volcanic activity from the last 10,000 years.
As component of the UN international Decade for herbal Disaster Reduction, the international Association of Volcanology and Chemistry the the Earth’s interior (IAVCEI) produced a perform of 16 "Decade Volcanoes" to study due to the fact that of the high threat they pose to public safety. Mount Nyiragongo in autonomous Republic the the Congo, because that example, is dangerously close to the city the Goma. That 2002 eruption eliminated 50 people and forced around 450,000 civilization to evacuate their communities. The Santa María Volcano, which sit right over the city that Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, has actually been consistently erupting because 2003. The te Volcanoes regimen has carried together geologists, volcanologists, and also government public official to closely study these volcanoes and also create risk-mitigation plans for potential eruptions.
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Volcanoes are such powerful forces that nature that numerous cultures in volcanically energetic regions have innovative mythologies supporting gods and goddesses that volcanoes.
Vulcan (for whom volcanoes room named) is a roman inn god.Hephaestus is a Greek god from whom Vulcan developed.Pele is a Hawaiian goddess.Ruaumoko is a Maori god.Xiahtecuhtli is an Aztec god.Ayanju is a Yoruba orisha, or deity.Kagu-Tsuchi is a Japanese kami, or spirit.
One of the many mysterious types of volcano eruptions is a subglacial eruption, which takes location on ice-covered volcanoes. Subglacial eruptions often an outcome in flooding, as glaciers are heated by hot magma and volcanic gas. This sudden, violent flooding the glacial meltwater is referred to as a jökulhlaup.

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The “Decade Volcanoes” type a list of what could be considered the most hazardous volcanoes on the planet. The 16 te volcanoes are:
Avachinsky-Koryaksky, RussiaColima, MexicoEtna, ItalyGaleras, ColombiaMauna Loa, USAMerapi, IndonesiaNyiragongo, Dem. Rep. The the CongoRainier, USASakurajima, JapanSanta Maria/Santiaguito, GuatemalaSantorini, GreeceTaal, PhilippinesTeide, Spain (Canary Islands)Ulawun, Papau brand-new GuineaUnzen, JapanVesuvius, Italy
The largest volcano known to humankind is not actually ~ above Earth! Olympus Mons is a dormant shield volcano ~ above Mars the is higher than 3 Mount Everests and is around as broad as the whole Hawaiian islands chain.
The many volcanically active body in our solar device is not planet at all. It’s Jupiter’s moon Io. At any type of one time, Io has actually 400 active volcanoes, which have the right to shoot plumes approximately 500 kilometers (300 miles) right into outer space! In 2001, a volcano in Io’s Surt region produced the largest eruption ever before recorded, spanning 1,900 square kilometers (1,180 square miles), one area bigger than the city of Los Angeles.