Describe the basic chemical structure of nucleic acids, identify monomers and polymers, and also list the features of RNA and DNA describe the structure and role of ATP in the cell

Nucleic acids save the same elements as proteins: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen; add to phosphorous (C, H, O, N, and also P). Nucleic acids room very huge macromolecules created of repeated units of the same structure blocks, nucleotides, similar to a pearl necklace made of plenty of pearls. We can likewise define main point acids together polymers assembled from countless smaller covalently external inspection monomers.

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Nucleic acids space the molecule that duty in encoding, transmitting and expressing genetic information in our cells.

All nucleotides are made of 3 subunits: one or more phosphate groups, a pentose street (five-carbon sugar, one of two people deoxyribose or ribose), and a nitrogen-containing basic (either adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, or uracil). See number \(\PageIndex1\) below.


Figure \(\PageIndex1\) A main point acid short fragment made of 5 nucleotides is displayed on the right; one nucleotide is attached in a red rectangle. Every nucleotide is make of among the five nitrogenous bases, a pentose street (ribose or deoxyribose) and a phosphate group. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) has actually ribose because that a pentose, vice versa, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has actually deoxyribose. The 5 nitrogenous bases room classified together pyrimidines (cytosine, thymine, and uracil), which have a ring structure; and also purines (adenine and guanine), which have actually a double-ring structure. RNA molecules may have actually up come few-thousand nucleotides and are singlestranded, conversely, DNA molecules have billions the nucleotides arranged in two strings that nucleotides creating a helix. DNA, RNA, and proteins are regarded each various other as presented in table \(\PageIndex1\) below.

Table \(\PageIndex1\) DNA, RNA, and proteins partnership
DNA \(\rightarrow\) is provided to synthesize RNA \(\rightarrow\) which is provided to synthesize Proteins
Polymers the nucleotides Polymer of nucleotides Polymer that amino acids
Encodes amino mountain sequence the proteins Transmits and also expresses information in DNA Perform many cellular functions


Figure \(\PageIndex2\) DNA and RNA share 3 nucleotides in your composition (cytosine, guanine, and also adenine), and also they different in uracil (found just in RNA) and also thymine (found only in DNA). RNA is single strand, conversely, DNA in twin strand

Table \(\PageIndex2\) varieties of nucleic acids and also their functions type of nucleic Acid function
DNA Encodes and transmits inherited hereditary information native one generation come the next
RNA Translates the information encoded in DNA because that the production of proteins and aid in your synthesis

Concepts, terms, and also facts check

Study Questions create your answer in a sentence form (do not answer using loose words)

1. What is a nucleic acid?2. What aspects are nucleic acids made of?3. What space the monomers the make the building blocks of main point acids?4. What are the three materials of a nucleotide?5. Perform the species of nucleic acids defined in the module6. What space the attributes of nucleic acid listed in the module?

Nucleotides space the monomers that make up the nucleic acid polymers. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleotide that has vital function through itself. ATP is a direct and also rapid energy resource for many cellular activities. ATP consists of a solitary adenosine (the nitrogen-containing basic adenine and also the sugar ribose), attached to three phosphate ions.


Figure \(\PageIndex3\) The 2 covalent bond on the right of the molecule (shown in red) are high power bonds. When an enzymatic reaction breaks them down, a large amount of power is released. This energy is prepared to be used by a cell. On the various other hand, as soon as molecules (like the ones we incorporate in our diet) are damaged down by enzymes they relax energy. This energy can it is in temporarily organized on ATP molecule in the covalent bond between cost-free phosphate groups and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)

ATP is regularly referred to as the primary energy currency for the cell. ATP serves together an interkeolistravelservices.comiary molecule between chemical reactions that release energy, and chemical reactions that need energy. The does therefore by temporary “holding” the power released by one enzymatic reaction in the covalent binding that attach phosphates come ADP (the red people in the figure above). Then, the molecule of ATP can provide up that power where that is needed.

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The chemical formula summarizing this process, is


Since the reaction deserve to go in either direction (from ADP come ATP, or indigenous ATP come ADP), this is an example of a reversible reaction, and it is represented with an double arrow pointing in both directions.