“The marriage of Figaro,” additionally known together “Le nozze di Figaro” in Italian, is a comic opera (opera buffa) crafted by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. He created this opera making up four acts in 1786, when Lorenzo Da Ponte created the Italian libretto.

You are watching: The libretto for the marriage of figaro was written by

Origin

The premiere that “Le nozze di Figaro” was hosted premiered on the 1st of may 1786, in ~ the Burgtheater in Vienna, Austria. The libretto is based upon a stage comedy titled “The mad Day,” or “The marital relationship of Figaro” through Pierre Beaumarchais. That the story that servants Susanna and also Figaro, whose romance effectively flourishes right into marriage. They also foil the efforts of your employer count Almaviva, a philandering nobleman trying come seducing Susanna and also teach the the value of faithfulness.

History & Performances

“The marriage of Figaro” was at very first banned in Vienna, but Da Ponte eventually managed to obtain the Emperor’s official approval. The operatic version went on it is in a grand success. This was the first collaboration in between Mozart and Lorenzo. Wolfgang had approached Da Ponte v “The mad Day,” when the last crafted the libretto within six weeks. The political recommendations were removed, together was Figaro’s (the protagonist) original climactic rant, and also the whole thing was transformed right into poetic Italian.

Mozart"s music typically garnered applause among the audience and also was also admired by the connoisseurs. Ferenc Kazinczy, the famed Hungarian poet praised it, for this reason did Joseph Haydn. Mozart even reused a musical expression from the very first act of opera in the overture for his very own “Così fan tutte.” “Non più andrai,” Figaro’s Aria is also quoted through the composer in “Don Giovanni.” This Aria is further utilized together a “military march.” In 1819, one English adaptation the “The marital relationship of Figaro” was crafted through Henry R. Bishop. He re-introduced few of Mozart’s compositions but further included some the his very own work.

The Play

It is a continuation of an additional famous opera, “The Barber that Seville.” The pat depicts “la folle journée,” or a “day the madness,” and also is set several year after that predecessor. The occasions take place in Seville, Spain in count Almaviva’s palace.

Act I

*

Figaro, counting Almaviva’s servant, likewise the protagonist, is ~ above the verge of marrying Susanna, maid come the Countess. Together he takes dimensions of a room, Susanna is trying on she wedding bonnet, as they song the duet “Five, ten, twenty,” or “Cinque, dieci, venti.” Sussana expresses her concerns around being too close because that comfort to the Count’s chamber, who is also pursuing her. He plans ~ above invoking “droit du seigneur,” the feudal appropriate that enables a mr to consummate a maid girl before her husband, that also on she wedding night. Back the counting himself abolished this ritual as soon as marrying Countess Rosina, he wants it reinstated. Figaro vows to put an end to the Count’s schemes and also leaves, as “If you want to dance, teacher count” theatre in the background.

Marcellina and Doctor Bartolo enter the scene. Bartolo is irate v Figaro because that making a fool the end of him, when Marcellina is irate v Susanna, who stole Figaro native her. However, the women act politely, albeit sarcastically, performing the duet “After you, brilliant madam,” before they leave. Next, Cherubino, a young web page seeks advice from Susanna. He is being sent away as the counting has recorded him alone through Barbarina, the gardener’s daughter. He explains how that is infatuated through women, and also cannot manage himself through the track “I don"t know anymore what ns am.” However, before he gets any kind of advice, counting Almaviva interrupts them. Cherubino conveniently hides, as the counting proposes a personal romantic getaway come Susanna. However, the count is subsequently forced to hide as another voice is heard. Don Basilio, a music teacher enters the scene referencing Cherubino’s alleged infatuation towards the Countess. Almaviva, in a right of rage, expose himself through a chamber job-related “What perform I hear!” the relates come an amused Bertillo the scene involving Cherubino and also the gardener’s daughter and also further states that he will be sending out the page away. He then discovers Cherubino and is infuriated that the boy has heard him courting Susanna. He vows to provide him a military commission and ruin his life, together the track “No an ext gallivanting,” or “Non più andrai” theatre in the background.

Subsequently, Figaro returns v the townspeople, who space all merry and ready for a ceremony. Figaro requests Almaviva to tie him and also Susanna in holy matrimony. However, the count stalls him.

Act II

The act begins in the chambers that Countess Rosina, that laments the Count’s lack of attention and love in the direction of her through the track “Grant, love, part comfort.” She discusses the Count’s promiscuous nature v Susanna, that desperately desires to left alone. She comforts Rosina by share a setup that she and also Figaro have actually hatched - they will send Almaviva a letter informing him that his mam is having actually an affair. Susanna will certainly rendezvous through the Count, yet Cherubino (disguised) will certainly go rather of her.

Next, Cherubino beginning the scene v a the supervisory board letter Almaviva had actually forgotten to seal. However, that is amazed when the women ask him come undress. Susanna performs the Aria “Come, kneel down prior to me,” or “Venite, inginocchiatevi” together she teaches the page to walk and behave prefer a woman. The Countess conveniently hides Susanna and also Cherubino together the counting himself come unexpectedly. He has actually received the letter and also wants to comment on it v his wife. However, he becomes suspiciously after noticing she restlessness. He requirements to go into the locked within chamber whereby Cherubino was hiding. However, the Countess thwarts him, claiming Sussana is trying she wedding dress inside, as the trio “Susanna, come out” plays in the background. Almaviva, still not convinced, forces Rosina to companion her together he searches for a crowbar. As they leave, Susanna locks it s her in the within chamber together Cherubino escapes v the window, while performing the duet “Open the door, quickly!” However, Rosina, unaware of these events, confesses every little thing to the Count. She is subsequently shocked together Susanna is found inside the chamber, together the finale “Come the end of there, you ill-born boy!” is performed. Almaviva, ashamed, begs for her forgiveness.

Figaro come at the scene to conference them up, complied with by the gardener Antonio, who is upset that someone ruined his flowers by jumping end the Countess’s balcony. As he inquires, Figaro insurance claims himself to it is in the culprit. As soon as the gardener display screens the army commission Cherubino’s had dropped, Figaro claims he was keeping it to obtain the Count’s seal. Basilio, medical professional Bartolo, and Marcellina enter the scene, claiming the Figaro is bound to pay an outstanding debt by marrying Marcellina. The suspicious Almaviva vow to investigate and also subsequently postpones the wedding.

Act III

*

At Rosina’s insistence, Susanna meets the Almaviva in the garden that night, as the duet “Cruel girl, why walk you make me wait therefore long,” is performed. However, together Susanna leaves, she is overheard by the Count informing Figaro the he will win the case. The Count, furious, realizes he is being tricked and also vents his frustrations through the song “You"ve already won the case!”...”Shall I, while sighing, see.” the decides to pressure Figaro to marry Marcellina.

At the court, Figaro reveals the he cannot marry there is no his family’s consent, as he is that noble birth, however was taken native them as an infant. The is subsequently uncovered that Figaro is the illegitimate kid of Marcellina and also Doctor Bartolo. A emotional reunion is followed by an ext celebrations. Bartolo also agrees to marry Marcellina, together a double wedding is plan in the evening. The sextet “Recognize in this embrace” is performed in the background. As the group leaves, Cherubino is invited into the residence by Antonio"s daughter Barbarina. Meanwhile, the Countess ponders her case through the Aria “Where are they, the beautiful moment.” In the following scene, Antonio notifies the Count about Cherubino.

Susanna to update the Countess around their plan to trap Almaviva. The Countess climate asks Susanna to supply a love letter come The count on her behalf. The letter requests counting Almaviva to meet Susanna that really night. It additionally asks him to return the pin fastened come the letter together a token of acknowledgment. The scene is add by the duet “On the breeze.. What a gentle little zephyr.”

Next, a team of young peasants serenades the Countess. The counting recognizes Cherubino among them, but his anger consequently dispelled by Barbarina. Antonio’s daughter reminds the of a promise to provide her something in return for certain favors and also demands to marry Cherubino. The awkward Almaviva agrees. The plot is closed through the twin wedding, and Sussana moving the letter to Almaviva as the Finale “Here is the procession,” theatre in the background.

Act IV

Later that night, count Almaviva instructs Barbarina come return the pin to Susanna. However, Barbarina loses it and expresses her feelings with the Aria “I have lost it, bad me.” Marcellina and also Figaro hear around the situation. Figaro i do not care overtly jealousy after recognizing the Count’s pin, and further hearing that the pin is being ceded to Susanna. He think Susanna is being unfaithful and also swears revenge. Marcellina falls short to pacify him and also belts the end the Aria “The billy-goat and also the she-goat,” lamenting that where wild beasts of opposing sex can obtain along, rational human beings fail.

Figaro seeks aid from Basilio and Bartolo, and the latter urges caution. He renders the Aria “In those years,” signifying the prominence of no opposing powerful men. Figaro, still bitter, muses the unfaithfulness that women with the Aira (recitative) “Everything is ready..Open those eye a little.” Susanna learns around Figaro’s suspicions from Marcellina, and teases him with the Aria “Oh come, don"t delay.”

As Figaro hides behind a bush, the Countess arrives dressed as Susanna instead. The Count, bereft of the fact, starts make love to her. The genuine Susanna, dressed as Rosina, start the scene. Figaro, back confused, lastly recognizes his partner in disguise. Castle reconcile, together the song “Peace, peace, my sweet treasure” is performed.

The Count, can not to discover the real Susanna, confronts Figaro. He erroneously thinks Figaro is seducing his wife, and calls the guards v the song “Gentlemen, to arms!” every the personalities enter the scene and also beg for him come pardon Figaro and the disguised Susanna. Counting Almaviva refuses at first, yet when the genuine Countess Rosina enters, he identify their marital relationship ring. Thoroughly remorseful and also ashamed, he begs because that forgiveness from his wife. The track “Countess, pardon me!” is play in the background. The Countess pardons him v the song “I am an ext mild,” or “Più docile io sono,” as a happy finishing follows.

Musical Overview 

*

The Opera uses the complying with instrumentation - strings, timpani, two each that trumpets, horns, bassoons, clarinets, oboes, and flutes. The distribution style is attach by keyboard instruments, commonly harpsichord or fortepiano, sometimes also a cello. This instrumentation usually depends top top the choice of the performers and especially, the conductor.

There space 2 Arias in plot 4 that are often ignored, “In quegli anni,” and also “Il capro e la capretta.” The first depicts Don Bastillo narrating stories of his youth, if the 2nd portrays Marcellina lamenting the abuse that people shell out to each other. Mozart also concocted 2 replacement Arias because that the function of Susanna, “Al desio di chi t"adora,” and “Un moto di gioia.”

The music which offers a palpitating tremor at the start suddenly fulminates into a comical fanfare. The prelude music no return, however it does brew up a feverish atmosphere of something churning - the upcoming stunner events. Each event culminates into specifically what Mozart want to portray. Figaro is equipped through the many moving however humiliating music. However, the genuine showstoppers room the women. Mozart scheduled the ideal for them, music the is concurrently tragic, poised, and refined.

The grandeur and vastness that the music numbers are polished to to decrease the monotony and vexation of long dialogues and also to additional express the miscellaneous emotions in ~ play here. Mozart had embraced a much more classical layout of music, with numerous sections of the opera the same, similar thing a “Sonata.” lock build and also eventually resolve a palpable musical tension, noticeable through the activity of keys. He successfully synthesized symmetrical resolution with a dose of accelerated complexity - making that the dramatic same of the original play, and also in number of respects superior.

An Eternal Classic

Mozart’s brilliant creativity fuse the important structures beautifully with spot-on comedy. The an outcome was a structure of repertoire, and still remains one of the most performed operas. The ensemble music steals the display here, creating a reinvigorated operatic discourse. The Finale in action 2 is a testament to the - providing a long uninterrupted stretch of music wherein the composer seamlessly crafts the tension and blends it with perfect dramatic confusion.

The power of Mozart’s ingredient is unparalleled, it provides the viewers think in the opera. A fizzing volcano the emotions that connects with us, which educates us the this substantial cycle the commitment, infidelity, transgression, and also forgiveness is actually a part of life. And it will, perhaps, forever remain intertwined.

See more: Dp Sex 101: What Does A Dp Feel Like For Men & Women, For Men And Women

Johannes Brahms called it a miracle. He was astonished by Mozart regulated to with perfection. Nothing favor “The marriage of Figaro” to be ever produced again. It remains, over all, a spectacle.