Rutherford’s nuclear version of the atom helped explain why atoms of different elements exhibit different keolistravelservices.comical behavior. The identity of an aspect is identified by the atomic number (Z), the variety of protons in the nucleus of one atom the the element. The atom number is therefore different for each element. The known facets are i ordered it in order of increasing Z in the periodic table (Figure (PageIndex1)). The rationale for the peculiar layout of the periodic table is defined later. Each facet is assigned a unique one-, two-, or three-letter symbol. The names of the aspects are provided in the periodic table, in addition to their symbols, atom numbers, and also atomic masses. The keolistravelservices.comistry that each facet is identified by its number of protons and electrons. In a neutral atom, the number of electrons amounts to the variety of protons.

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Figure (PageIndex1): The regular Table reflecting the aspects in bespeak of boosting Z. The steels are on the bottom left in the routine table, and also the nonmetals space at the top right. The semimetals lie follow me a diagonal heat separating the metals and nonmetals. One interactivePeriodic table can befound here.

The elements are i ordered it in a regular table, which is most likely the solitary most vital learning assist in keolistravelservices.comistry. That summarizes vast amounts that information about the aspects in a means that facilitates the forecast of countless of your properties and also keolistravelservices.comical reactions. The elements are i ordered it in 7 horizontal rows, in order of increasing atomic number native left to right and top come bottom. The rows are called periods, and also they room numbered indigenous 1 come 7. The aspects are stack in such a way that elements with comparable keolistravelservices.comical properties kind vertical columns, referred to as groups, numbered from 1 come 18 (older regular tables use a system based upon roman numerals). Groups 1, 2, and also 13–18 room the main group elements, noted as A in enlarge tables. Teams 3–12 room in the center of the regular table and are the change elements, provided as B in enlarge tables. The two rows of 14 facets at the bottom the the periodic table space the lanthanides and the actinides, whose positions in the routine table are suggested in team 3.


Metals, Nonmetals, and Semimetals

The heavy orange zigzag line to run diagonally native the top left to the reduced right through teams 13–16 in number (PageIndex1) divides the elements into steels (in blue, below and also to the left the the line) and also nonmetals (in bronze, above and to the right of the line). Gold-colored lements the lie follow me the diagonal line exhibit properties intermediate in between metals and nonmetals; they are dubbed semimetals.

The difference between metals and also nonmetals is among the most basic in keolistravelservices.comistry. Metals—such together copper or gold—are good conductors the electricity and also heat; they can be pulled into wires since they room ductile; they deserve to be hammered or pressed right into thin sheets or foils since they space malleable; and also most have actually a shiny appearance, so they space lustrous. The vast majority of the known elements are metals. Of the metals, only mercury is a fluid at room temperature and pressure; every the rest are solids.

Nonmetals, in contrast, space generally bad conductors that heat and also electricity and also are not lustrous. Nonmetals can be gases (such together chlorine), liquids (such together bromine), or solids (such as iodine) in ~ room temperature and also pressure. Many solid nonmetals room brittle, so they rest into little pieces once hit v a hammer or pulled right into a wire. Together expected, semimetals exhibit properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals.


Example (PageIndex1): Classifying Elements

Based on its place in the routine table, do you intend selenium to be a metal, a nonmetal, or a semimetal?

Given: element

Asked for: classification

Strategy:

Find selenium in the periodic table presented in figure (PageIndex1) and then share the aspect according come its location.

Solution:

The atomic variety of selenium is 34, which locations it in period 4 and also group 16. In number (PageIndex1), selenium lies above and come the ideal of the diagonal line marking the boundary in between metals and nonmetals, so it should be a nonmetal. Note, however, that since selenium is close come the metal-nonmetal separating line, it would certainly not be how amazing if selenium were similar to a semimetal in few of its properties.


Exercise (PageIndex1)

Based top top its place in the routine table, carry out you intend indium to be a nonmetal, a metal, or a semimetal?

Answer

metal


As previously noted, the routine table is i ordered it so that facets with comparable keolistravelservices.comical actions are in the same group. keolistravelservices.comists often make basic statements around the nature of the aspects in a group using descriptive name with historic origins. For example, the elements of group 1 are recognized as the alkali metals, group 2 room the alkaline planet metals, team 17 room the halogens, and also Group 18 room the noble gases.


Group 1: The Alkali Metals

The alkali steels are lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium. Hydrogen is unique in the it is typically placed in team 1, but it is no a metal. The compounds of the alkali metals are common in nature and daily life. One example is table salt (sodium chloride); lithium compounds are offered in greases, in batteries, and as medicine to law patients that exhibit manic-depressive, or bipolar, behavior. Although lithium, rubidium, and also cesium are relatively rare in nature, and also francium is for this reason unstable and highly radioactive that it exist in only trace amounts, sodium and potassium are the seventh and eighth many abundant elements in Earth’s crust, respectively.


Group 2: The Alkaline planet Metals

The alkaline planet metals room beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and also radium. Beryllium, strontium, and barium are rare, and radium is unstable and highly radioactive. In contrast, calcium and magnesium room the fifth and sixth many abundant elements on Earth, respectively; castle are found in large deposits of limestone and other minerals.


Group 17: The Halogens

The halogens room fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine. The surname halogen is acquired from the Greek words because that “salt forming,” which shows that every the halogens react easily with metals to kind compounds, such as sodium chloride and also calcium chloride (used in some areas as roadway salt).

Compounds that contain the fluoride ion are added to toothpaste and the water supply to protect against dental cavities. Fluorine is likewise found in Teflon coatings top top kitchen utensils. Return chlorofluorocarbon propellants and also refrigerants are believed to result in the depletion the Earth’s ozone layer and contain both fluorine and also chlorine, the latter is responsible because that the adverse effect on the ozone layer. Bromine and also iodine are less abundant than chlorine, and also astatine is therefore radioactive the it exist in just negligible amounts in nature.


Group 18: The Noble Gases

The noble gases are helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and also radon. Due to the fact that the noble gases space composed the only solitary atoms, they are dubbed monatomic. At room temperature and pressure, they room unreactive gases. Because of their absence of reactivity, for plenty of years lock were called inert gases or rare gases. However, the very first keolistravelservices.comical compound containing the noble gases were all set in 1962. Back the noble gases are reasonably minor ingredient of the atmosphere, herbal gas contains substantial quantities of helium. Due to the fact that of its short reactivity, argon is regularly used as an unreactive (inert) environment for welding and in irradiate bulbs. The red irradiate emitted through neon in a gas discharge pipe is used in neon lights.

The noble gases space unreactive at room temperature and pressure.

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Summary

The regular table is used as a predictive tool. That arranges that the aspects in order of raising atomic number. Elements that exhibit comparable keolistravelservices.comistry show up in vertical columns referred to as groups (numbered 1–18 native left to right); the seven horizontal rows are called periods. Some of the groups have widely-used typical names, consisting of the alkali metals (Group 1) and also the alkaline earth metals (Group 2) ~ above the far left, and the halogens (Group 17) and the noble gases (Group 18) ~ above the far right. The elements can be extensively divided into metals, nonmetals, and semimetals. Semimetals exhibit nature intermediate in between those of metals and nonmetals. Metals are situated on the left that the periodic table, and also nonmetals are situated on the upper right. They room separated by a diagonal tape of semimetals. Metals are lustrous, an excellent conductors the electricity, and readily shame (they are ductile and malleable), whereas hard nonmetals are generally brittle and also poor electrical conductors. Other crucial groupings of elements in the regular table space the main group elements, the transition metals, the lanthanides, and also the actinides.