Describe the behavior of chromosomes during meiosisDescribe cellular events throughout meiosisExplain the differences between meiosis and also mitosisExplain the mechanisms within meiosis that generate genetic variation among the assets of meiosis

Sexual reproduction requires fertilization, a union of two cells from 2 individual organisms. If those two cells every contain one set of chromosomes, then the resulting cell consists of two to adjust of chromosomes. The number of sets of chromosomes in a cell is dubbed its ploidy level. Haploid cell contain one set of chromosomes. Cell containing two sets that chromosomes are referred to as diploid. If the reproductive bicycle is to continue, the diploid cell must somehow reduce its number of chromosome sets before fertilization can happen again, or there will be a constant doubling in the variety of chromosome to adjust in every generation. So, in enhancement to fertilization, sex-related reproduction contains a nuclear division, recognized as meiosis, the reduces the variety of chromosome sets.

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Most animals and plants room diploid, containing two sets the chromosomes; in each somatic cabinet (the nonreproductive cells of a multicell organism), the nucleus has two copies of each chromosome that are described as homologous chromosomes. Somatic cells are occasionally referred to as “body” cells. Homologous chromosomes are matched pairs containing gene for the exact same traits in similar locations follow me their length. Diploid biology inherit one copy of every homologous chromosome from every parent; every together, lock are considered a full collection of chromosomes. In animals, haploid cells containing a solitary copy of each homologous chromosome are uncovered only within gametes. Gametes fuse with one more haploid gamete to create a diploid cell.

The nuclear division that creates haploid cells, i m sorry is called meiosis, is related to mitosis. As you have learned, mitosis is component of a cell reproduction bike that outcomes in similar daughter nuclei that are likewise genetically identical to the initial parent nucleus. In mitosis, both the parent and also the daughter nuclei save on computer the same variety of chromosome sets—diploid for many plants and also animals. Meiosis employs countless of the same mechanisms together mitosis. However, the starting nucleus is always diploid and the nuclei that result at the finish of a meiotic cell division are haploid. To achieve the reduction in chromosome number, meiosis is composed of one ring of chromosome duplication and two rounds of nuclear division. Since the events that occur during each the the department stages room analogous come the occasions of mitosis, the very same stage names room assigned. However, because there room two rounds of division, the stages are designated through a “I” or “II.” Thus, meiosis ns is the an initial round that meiotic division and is composed of prophase I, prometaphase I, and so on. Meiosis ns reduces the variety of chromosome sets from two to one. The genetic information is likewise mixed throughout this department to develop unique recombinant chromosomes. Meiosis II, in which the second round that meiotic department takes ar in a method that is comparable to mitosis, has prophase II, prometaphase II, and so on.


Meiosis is came before by one interphase consist of of the G1, S, and G2 phases, i beg your pardon are almost identical to the phases preceding mitosis. The G1 step is the first phase that interphase and is focused on cabinet growth. In the S phase, the DNA of the chromosomes is replicated. Finally, in the G2 phase, the cabinet undergoes the last preparations because that meiosis.

During DNA duplication the the S phase, each chromosome becomes written of two identical copies (called sister chromatids) the are held together in ~ the centromere till they are pulled apart during meiosis II. In an animal cell, the centrosomes that organize the microtubules the the meiotic spindle additionally replicate. This prepares the cell because that the an initial meiotic phase.

Meiosis I

Early in prophase I, the chromosomes deserve to be seen clearly microscopically. As the nuclear envelope starts to break down, the proteins linked with homologous chromosomes lug the pair nearby to every other. The tight pairing that the homologous chromosomes is dubbed synapsis. In synapsis, the gene on the chromatids the the homologous chromosomes are precisely aligned through each other. An exchange the chromosome segments between non-sister homologous chromatids occurs and is called crossing over. This procedure is revealed visually after the exchange as chiasmata (singular = chiasma) (


As prophase i progresses, the nearby association between homologous chromosomes begins to break down, and the chromosomes proceed to condense, although the homologous chromosomes remain attached come each various other at chiasmata. The variety of chiasmata varies through the types and the size of the chromosome. At the end of prophase I, the pairs are hosted together just at chiasmata (

) and are dubbed tetrads since the four sister chromatids of each pair of homologous chromosomes are currently visible.

The crossover occasions are the an initial source of hereditary variation created by meiosis. A single crossover event between homologous non-sister chromatids leads to a reciprocal exchange of equivalent DNA in between a maternal chromosome and a head chromosome. Now, once that sister chromatid is moved into a gamete, the will bring some DNA indigenous one parental of the individual and also some DNA indigenous the various other parent. The recombinant sisters chromatid has actually a mix of maternal and paternal gene that did not exist prior to the crossover.

Figure 2: To show random, elevation assortment at metaphase I, think about a cell with n = 2. In this case, there room two feasible arrangements at the equatorial aircraft in metaphase I, as presented in the upper cell of every panel. These two feasible orientations bring about the manufacturing of genetically different gametes. With much more chromosomes, the number of possible arrangements increases dramatically.

In anaphase I, the spindle fibers pull the linked chromosomes apart. The sister chromatids remain tightly bound with each other at the centromere. It is the chiasma connections that are damaged in anaphase I together the fibers attached come the fused kinetochores pull the homologous chromosomes apart (


In telophase I, the be separate chromosomes arrive at the opposite poles. The remainder of the usual telophase events may or may not occur depending on the species. In part organisms, the chromosomes decondense and nuclear envelopes type around the chromatids in telophase I.

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Cytokinesis, the physics separation of the cytoplasmic components into two daughter cells, wake up without improvement of the nuclei in other organisms. In nearly all species, cytokinesis the end the cell components by either a cleavage furrow (in animals and some fungi), or a cabinet plate that will eventually lead to development of cell wall surfaces that separate the 2 daughter cell (in plants). At each pole, over there is simply one member of every pair of the homologous chromosomes, so only one full collection of the chromosomes is present. This is why the cells are taken into consideration haploid—there is just one chromosome set, even though there are duplicate copies of the collection because every homolog still consists of 2 sister chromatids that space still attached to each other. However, back the sisters chromatids were once duplicates that the same chromosome, they space no longer similar at this stage since of crossovers.