Waghmare - Forensic Science communications - January 2004

January 2004 - Volume 6 - Number 1

Research and also Technology

Wounding strength of .315/8mm Bullets Fired v Glass Windowpanes

Narayan P. Waghmare senior Scientific Officer central Forensic science Laboratory bureau of Police research study and advancement Kolkata, India Anandamoy Manna Professor department of Physics Jadavpur university Kolkata, India Mottamari S. Rao cook Forensic Scientist bureau of Police study and development Ministry of house Affairs new Delhi, India

Abstract | lift | development Theory | materials and an approach | Results and also Discussion | referrals

Abstract

In India, a .315 caliber sporting rifle is a an extremely common licensed weapon. It, in conjunction with the soft-nose bullet, is regularly the weapon the crime in the northeastern region of India. Glass windowpanes are a usual intermediate target for bullets or pellets and may come to be a second missile. Frequently, the glass serves together a proviso in a criminal shoot investigation. This record addresses the wounding potential and power of a soft-nose cartridge at the highlight velocity and the remaining velocity as soon as fired through glass of assorted thicknesses.

Background

The physical characteristics of glass, such as its refractive index and also density, room well known. Also well recognized is the behavior of a glass windowpane fracture under the stress of a bullet impact. Frequently, it is critical to recognize the wounding capacity of a cartridge after it has perforated glass. In forensic ballistics, over there is interest in investigate the relationship among the excessive ranges of assorted firearms and their wounding capability.

In the examination of a crime as soon as a human is alleged to have actually been shot v a glass door or window, it can be essential to determine if the injuries were led to by the bullet the was fired through the glass. Since velocity is an important factor in the wounding power of a bullet, solution could be discovered if the remaining velocity of the contents of the soft-nose bullet, prefer the lead main point or the jacket fragments after perforating the glass, is known. An examination of forensic ballistics literary works reveals that there is a lack of data ~ above the velocity and wounding volume of bullets that have actually perforated a glass home window or door. Data around variables typically encountered in shooting occurrences should be collected, processed, and analyzed to administer accurate information about what emerged at the crime scene.

Sellier and Kneubuehl (1994) and Oven-Smith (1981) learned wounding strength by experimenting with cloth, wood, and cadavers and also comparing their findings with experiences on the battlefield. Many countries offered full-lead round-nose bullets weighing between 20g and also 25g through initial velocities of roughly 425m/sec. They concluded that in cases of physical injuries and skull wounds, the hydraulic pressure resulted in by the projectile is important and that few of the command from the projectile can melt on impact with the bone yet not during penetration into soft tissue.

Sellier and also Kneubuehl (1994) experimented through the nature of small-arms projectiles. They additionally studied the performance of jacketed, nonjacketed, and semijacketed bullets that were moved from the rifle into the person body.

McLaughlin and Beardsley (1956) experimented v what takes ar when a cartridge passes with a glass intermediary target. They studied the distribution of shooting powder residue on the glass and on towel targets after check firings. They found that the glass to be intact except for the hole led to by the bullet. Return it has actually been discussed, there is a paucity of information in forensic science literature concerning the effect of intermediary targets top top bullets.

Fackler (1994) studied energy expenditure and also suggested that lot of the energy is dissipated together heat during the creation of the hole. Several of the heat could be from chemistry energy, frequently transformed directly into heat. Few of the heat might be a last product of the expenditure that kinetic energy. In short, the heat resulting indigenous the projectile’s mechanical disruption of issue (e.g., air, flesh, or a glass target) gives further injury come the human being body.

relying on its shape, a relocating object loser velocity, for this reason energy, because of air drag. The performance of the shape counts upon the circulation of air throughout the object; effective shapes annoy the airflow really little, whereas inefficient shapes disturb the airflow more (Harrison 1971). A high-speed projectile fired from a an excellent distance may cause an irregular wound entrance as it enters the skin over a bony surface ar (Hather 1987). Roughly a gunshot wound, there might be evidence of abrasion, scorching, or burning. The skin may be singed, or the basic tissue may contain blackened gunpowder residue or glass residue from an intermediary target. There may be metal chips at the entrance and also in the monitor of the wound.

Finck (1965) established that the accident criteria, or the lot of kinetic energy required to placed a male out the combat, was 4kg-m (39.223 joules) indigenous a French weapon, 6.3kg-m (61.771 joules) native a Swiss weapon, 8kg-m (78.453 joules) native a German weapon, 24kg-m (235.356 joules) from a Russian weapon, and 8.2kg-m (79.993 joules) indigenous an English weapon.

Sellier and also Kneubuehl (1994), trying out with projectiles of assorted shapes, demonstrated the amount of kinetic power per surface ar area forced to create contusions and also large-bone fractures in men and horses. They stated that a spherical lead bullet measuring 11.25mm in diameter and weighing 8.5g at a velocity of 46m/sec produces only a contusion ~ above the bare person skin. That is kinetic energy is approximately 1kg-m (9.490 joules). The same kind of cartridge at 70m/sec penetrates right into the target with a kinetic energy of around 2kg-m.

Introduction

for this paper, measurements of the early stage striking and also remaining velocities of soft-nose bullets fired v glass windowpanes of miscellaneous thicknesses were recorded. A .315 caliber sporting rifle manufactured in India in 1973, bearing serial number 93 abdominal 3228, was supplied to fire the bullets. A numerical analysis was done to correlate wound development by a soft-nose bullet fired with windowpanes of miscellaneous thicknesses to its result loss the energy. This mathematical models support laboratory outcomes of injuries led to by glass fragments and also bullets on people standing close to windowpanes or glass doors. The selection of firing can be calculated from the muzzle velocity, affect velocity, remaining velocity, and also the ballistic coefficient the the bullet. To calculation the wounding criteria (i.e., 79.993 joules), the firing street is contained with any type of remaining velocity and energy that would be danger to people (Warren board of directors 1964; Sellier and also Kneubuehl 1994).

Theory

In general, a .315/8mm cartridge produced in India consists of a cartridge case and also a soft-nose bullet. The bullets are comprised of a lead main point surrounded by a coat that fragments when fired with a windowpane. If d is the diameter of any type of lead core/jacketed component and l the thickness, the as whole exposed surface ar area S deserve to be offered as:

Equation 1   S = π d

The command core and also jacket fragments do not behave together a stabilized projectile throughout their trip after penetrating glass. Castle tumble in an irregular trajectory. Because ballistic coefficients for the ejected fragments vary v each shot, that becomes essential to take it the average for approximate values.

Cummings (1953) found that by ignoring the complication from residual spin, he could show that the ballistic coefficient of a tumbling lead core and also jacket fragments approximates the of a sphere of the exact same weight W and surface area S. V this estimation, an expression because that the diameter (ds) of the equalization sphere can be derived as:

Equation 2   
*

Several specialists in the wound ballistics field have argued formulae because that the resistance offered by the bullet. Burrard (1955) argues the complying with equation for calculating the ballistic coefficient C of a spherical projectile as:

Equation 3   C = W / (2.3 ds2).l

If W is in grams, then Equation 3 have the right to be composed as:

Equation 4   c = 0.00096 W / (d )

Hence, Equations 1 with 4 deserve to be provided to advice the trajectory the the command core and also jacketed portions, whereby W is the load of projectile in pounds, and ds is in inches.

If R = resistance come the activity of bullet v = continuing to be velocity ~ passage with the glass target r = radius the the cross ar of the bullet v 0 = velocity at the moment of impact a and also b = constants that count on the nature of the glass the the projectile penetrates k = empirical constant

Cranz (1943) suggests that:

       R = a ∏ r2 R = ∏ r2 (a + b.v2) R = ∏ r2 (a + b.v2) . (1 + k. Vo)2

Computation software occurred by central Forensic scientific research Laboratory in Kolkata, India, was used to the over formulae to develop the relationship in between the thickness the glass and the ns of energy.

If penetration and the result of acceleration is taken into consideration as a right line, and the impact of acceleration from gravity is negligible, the equation of motion of the projectile fired v the glass target is provided as:

Equation 5   mv dv/dx = −∏ r2 . A.i

where i = shape element for the bullet. The integration that Equation 5 becomes:

      ∫dv/dx = -δ1 ∏ r2 . A.i.mv         dv = m (vo - v)2/2 −∏ r2.a.i

Equation 6   x = m (vo - v)2 / ∏ r2 .1/2.a.i

In a offered experiment, v = continuing to be velocity after ~ passage through the target. Because a stole projectile might inflict more injury, the distance of perforation in the target becomes:

Equation 7   x = m (vo - v)2 / ∏ r2 .1/2.a.i

Perforation the glass target (i.e., depth that penetration), x is proportional to:

      m (v0-v)2 / ∏ r2

The value of a.i because that the soft-nose bullet deserve to be uncovered experimentally with targets simulated to represent the abdomen, thighs, or other areas of the body.

The an outcome can it is in calculated ~ above the strong assumption that the projectile strikes head on, back the projectile in flight moves v a slight yaw, varying with its trajectory. Hence, the area of cross ar ∏ r2 may not it is in absolutely correct. This might be changed by (∏ r2cos∂ + 2 l.r. Sin∂ ). Therefore, Equation 7 can be created as:

Equation 8   x = mvo2 / (∏ r2cos∂ + 2 l.r. Sin∂) x .1/2.a.i

once the irregularly shame bullet fragments do no follow aerodynamic rule in a dense medium, the projectiles quickly shot to look for a state that stabilization. When this stabilization is achieved, the fragments continue to pass through in a solved orientation. The loss of velocity that each broke up bullet has actually been computed by the central Forensic scientific research Laboratory in Kolkata, India. Hence, under ideal problems the lot of projectiles can be very damaging. Prefragmented bullets may penetrate deeper right into the person body to reach vital organs much more easily.

Materials and Method

commercial windowpanes measure up 30.4 by 30.4cm in size, accessible at 2.6, 3.8, 5.2, 8.5, and also 10mm thicknesses, to be selected because that the experiments. A .315/8mm caliber sporting gun was provided to conduct experimental soft-nose bullet firings in the activities (Table 1).

Two digital timers (ET 425A) manufactured by electronics Corporation the India, limited (Hyderabad, India), were used to measure up the early stage velocity and also the corresponding remaining velocity of soft-nose bullets fired with the miscellaneous windowpanes. The timer, with an exact and secure crystal-controlled oscillator together the standard timing source, is a flexible transistorized unit capable of measure up time intervals together low as 10F/sec. Indicator tubes display the units of measurement with the decimal point automatically indicated.

The 30.4cm square windowpanes were organized in a vertical plane by a especially fabricated stole frame. The firing plan is presented in figure 1. The rifle was held at a appropriate angle to the target addressed on a heavy wooden table. To measure the early stage striking velocity, the bullet was fired v two aluminum foil display screens placed 60cm apart that were linked to one of the timers. These display screens started and also stopped the timer.

The screen nearer the glass plate to be at a street of 70cm native the glass. In this way, the timer provided the mean velocity that the bullet at various distances in front of the windowpane (i.e., initial striking velocity). Throughout the experiments, treatment was required to ensure that the screen nearer the firearm to be well beyond the variety of muzzle blast so the the timer was actually started by the bullets and not the muzzle blast.

To measure up the remaining velocity, two more aluminum foil screens, connected to the 2nd timer, were inserted behind the windowpane. Come be certain the bullet did no fail to rest the display from possible deviation as it passed with the windowpane, the distance of the aluminum foil screen that started the 2nd timer to be 30cm native the windowpane. The distance in between the two aluminum foil display screens behind the window glass was 40cm. Thus, the second electronic timer offered the mean crucial velocity the the cartridge at a distance of 50cm behind the window glass (i.e., staying velocity).

Measurements and also calculations on early striking and also remaining velocity because that the .315/8mm firearm, the cartridge, and also the target combinations were calculated to get the energy. The lose of velocity/energy and also their percentages are shown in Table 2.

Results and also Discussion

once a soft-nose cartridge perforates a glass windowpane, the resistance that the glass reasons it to lose some of its velocity, thus the staying velocity that a bullet becomes less than its early striking velocity. This have the right to be observed from the striking and remaining velocities provided in Table 1. Staying bullet velocity i do not care a role of its initial striking velocity and also the thickness of the glass. It additionally depends top top the ballistic coefficient that the bullet and also on the physical properties the the glass. In the test-firing arrangement, the best distance in between the muzzle of the firearm and the windowpane was around 2.5m. At this distance, the bullets can be taken into consideration to have hit the glass with muzzle velocities. The remaining velocity measurements in Table 1 show that for windowpanes and also glass doors that 2.6, 3.8, 5.2, 8.5, and also 10mm thicknesses, the highlight velocities space much higher than the minimums prescribed for the penetration of human bone and also skin (60m/sec, 37.5–51m/sec) shown by Coates and also Beyer (1962). Table 2 reveals the the portion loss of velocity/energy for the soft-nose bullet is no maximum for greater thicknesses that windowpanes.

The soft-nose bullets usually were uncovered unstable, and also the command core v jacketed parts separated ~ penetrating the glass target. This instability, coupled through loss that velocity/energy suffered during the penetration of the glass plates, makes a bullet lose its velocity/energy quickly as it continues to travel. Therefore, that is concluded the the lethal variety of a cartridge is likely to decrease rapidly after perforating a windowpane.

The components that influence a wound space shape, weight, and also velocity the the projectile; density and characteristics the tissue; direction; and the quantity of transmission of energy. In a call wound (i.e., once the muzzle the the weapon touches the body of the victim), the velocity of the projectile at affect equals its muzzle velocity. In close-range firing, the velocity that the projectile is near muzzle velocity. In distance shots, however, comparative velocity dimensions should be carried out at various distances. Two similar bullets in ~ the same variety of highlight velocity and also kinetic power may develop wounds of different patterns and also dimension.

the is difficult and unrealistic to collection and usage a conventional casualty criterion. Over there are plenty of physical, anatomical, and physiological determinants that may modify any kind of predetermined accident criterion. In addition to the highlight kinetic energy, the form of the projectile and the anatomic framework of the injured tissue affect the size of a human casualty. Also, the much more the projectiles penetrate, the greater the opportunities of hitting an important tissue.

To evaluate the wounding strength (calculated staying energy) the a bullet according to its velocity/energy, the relationship between the length, diameter, and weight must be calculated. Table 3 and also Table 4 display the calculations for a lead cartridge fired in ~ close selection through a window glass serving together an intermediary target.

The difference in the problem of the freely supported glass plates and the built-in supported glass plates is apparent. In the freely supported position, the glass plates are organized by a structure in the reduced edge the the glass plate, however in the integrated supported position the glass bowl are hosted by an iron structure surrounding the glass plate, although it is not apparent in the low-velocity region. All the cracks may be taken into consideration to have formed as a result of the dissipation the the save on computer elastic strain power at fracture. Glass fracture fads were it was observed on the fired window glass (i.e., radial, concentric). It can be concluded that the full crack length represents the magnitude of elastic strain energy released during fracture.

presume that about 79.993 joules of energy are compelled for skin penetration and approximately 27.889 joules because that the penetration that bone, the striking and also remaining velocity/energy would need to be at the very least 48.5m/sec, 1.4kg-m. Jauhari and Bandyopadhayy (1975) established that the striking energy of 7.9kg-m is the minimum to reason a disabling wound. The bullet would develop a wound more easily in the softer tissues. In every cases, the striking velocities and also energies were higher than the threshold velocity prescribed because that the penetration of human being skin and bone or to cause a disabling wound. The remaining power (12.8kg-m) to be also greater than the minimum forced to reason a disabling wound. Table 5 and Table 6 display that the average remaining power of a command core and also its jacketed pieces after perforating claimed thickness that windowpane space 534.862 joules and also 191.428 joules respectively, which space also more than the minimum prescribed for causing a disabling wound.

A cartridge is i can not qualify to perforate, fracture, or break a bone together it does once it strikes at its muzzle velocity, as can be watched from the computational data evaluation shown in Table 5 and Table 6.

References

Burrard, G. Modern-day Shotgun. Herbert Jenkins, London, 1955, pp. 253-254. Coates, J. B. And also Beyer, J. C., eds. Wound Ballistics. U. S. Office that the surgeon General, room of the Army, Washington, DC, 1962, pp.143-233. Cranz, C. Ausse re Ballistik. Edwards Brothers, Berlin, 1943, pp. 457-476. Cummings, C. S. Everday Ballistics. Stackpole and Heck, brand-new York, 1953, pp.126-127. Fackler, M. L. The wound profile and the human being body: damage pattern correlation, Wound Ballistics review (1994) 1:12-19. Finck, P. A. Ballistics and pathologic aspects of missile wounds: Conversation in between Anglo-American and metric device units, Military medication (1965) 130:545-569. Harrison, E. H. The shotgun might shoot farther 보다 you think, American Rifleman (1971) 119:20-21, 83. Hather, J. S. Firearms Investigation, Identification, and also Evidence. University publication Agency, Allahabad, India, 1987, pp. 275-285. Jauhari, M. And also Bandyopadhayy, A. Measure up of the volume of permanent cavity in wound ballistics studies, journal of the Indian Academy the Forensic scientific research (1975), 14:57-59. McLaughlin, G. H. And Beardsley, C. H. Street determinations in instances of gunshot v glass, newspaper of Forensic sciences (1956) 1:43-46. Oven-Smith, M. S. High Velocity Missile Wounds. Edward Arnold, London, 1981, p. 10. Sellier, K. G. And also Kneubuehl, B. P. Wound Ballistics and the clinical Background. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1994, pp. 63-68, 221-223. Warren Commission, Report of the President’s commissions on the Assassination that President man F. Kennedy. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1964.

Table 1: staying Velocity (m/sec) and also Energy (joules)Test No.

You are watching: How many joules does a bullet have

Thickness that Glass (mm)Distance native Muzzle to Glass Target (mm)Velocity of Bullet prior to Hitting Target (m/sec)Remaining Velocity (m/sec)Diameter of feet After shoot (mm)Position that Glass ~ above Target
12.6800.1460.24280.4119.278Built-in
22.62438502.92315.4614.478Built-in
32.63048533.70301.448.498Built-in
43.84051549.70303.5819.685Built-in
53.83048541.32304.1919.786Built-in
63.83048534.92302.3619.075Built-in
75.22438539.49304.8017.830Built-in
85.23048538.58333.1418.110Built-in
95.23048536.75289.5620.701Built-in
108.52438535.83320.0418.948Built-in
118.53048541.32327.0519.685Built-in
128.53048537.05298.7017.881Built-in
13103048535.22301.7518.669Built-in
14103048536.44315.4619.659Built-in
15103048534.00302.3618.415Built-in

Firearm—.315 caliber, Rifle Factory, Ichhapur, West Bengal, India Ammunition—.315/8mm, Kirkee Factory, Pune, India, 1993 Ballistic coefficient the .315/8mm projectile before hitting glass target—.03353

Table 2. Data on ns of Velocity and Loss of EnergyTest No.Initial Velocity (m/sec)Remaining Velocity (m/sec)Loss of Velocity (m/sec)Loss that Velocity (%)Initial power (joules)Remaining energy (joules) Loss of power (joules) Loss of energy (%)
1460.24280.41179.8345.912081.72609.711472.0170
2502.92315.46187.4540.141961.05771.591189.4660
3533.70301.44232.2543.512219.47708.001511.4668
4549.70303.58245.9744.752353.29718.041635.2569
5541.32304.19237.1343.802283.33720.881562.3168
6534.92302.36232.5643.472229.64712.341517.2968
7539.49304.80234.6943.502267.88723.871544.0068
8538.58333.14204.4338.142260.15864.741395.4062
9536.75289.56247.1946.052244.83653.231591.5970
10535.83320.04215.7940.22237.23790.031439.2064
11541.32327.05214.2739.582283.33833.421449.9163
12537.05298.70238.3544.381951.70695.121256.5764
13535.22301.75233.4743.622232.08709.501522.5868
14536.44315.46220.9841.192242.39718.991522.5868
15534.00302.36231.6443.372222.05712.371509.6768

Table 3. Data for Lead Core: A component of .315/8mm Projectile Fired v a Glass WindowpaneTest No.Weight that Fired bullet (grams)Weight that Fired Lead core (grams)Diameter that Fired Lead main point (mm)Length of Fired Lead core (mm)Average Ballistic Coefficient the Fired command Core
114.3912.507.213623.1140.0401649
211.7010.846.98523.7740.0356892
314.5012.506.83224.1300.041133
414.7012.207.08622.3010.041256
514.2012.076.98526.2120.0360284
615.3013.407.41625.2730.0386028
713.1011.706.70524.2060.0386106
811.9010.127.62011.0490.0392124
914.1112.116.98532.5620.0553571
1013.4012.447.5184.8000.02966
1112.6012.137.64519.5070.63267
1213.7011.347.23919.3800.0423337
1312.9912.797.31523.5200.039802
1413.0512.697.56919.5070.1806448
1514.2012.287.3157.3150.038849

Table 4. Data for Jacketed Portion: A component of .315/8mm Projectile Fired v a Glass WindowpaneTest No.Weight of Fired bullet (grams)Weight of Fired Jacketed portion (grams)Diameter the Fired Jacketed portion (mm)Length the Fired Jacketed part (mm)Average Ballistic Coefficient that Fired Jacketed Portion
114.391.9309.98223.7990.0041592
211.700.84811.55717.1190.0019846
314.501.8468.25522.1480.0052709
414.701.84610.99823.4440.0035917
514.202.0808.38226.2120.0050550
615.300.8688.38224.2570.0023024
713.101.4388.22923.3170.0040600
811.901.8078.02611.0490.0058060
914.111.70011.48019.0750.0066470
1013.401.4106.98522.4020.0023800
1112.600.9007.51819.5070.0015091
1213.701.6007.64519.3800.0029054
1312.991.7007.23918.9230.0055522
1413.051.6007.56921.3360.0047680
1514.201.8007.31522.9870.0035901

Table 5. Data top top Trajectory Parameters of Fired lead CoreTest No.

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Distance Lead core Traveled (meter)Minimum power Required for Lethal (joules)Remaining Velocity (m/sec)Remaining power (joules)Time of trip (seconds)
1205.6479.708280.416493.0841.200
2203.3881.294280.416493.0841.180
3201.07682.935280.416493.0841.160
4198.7984.996280.416493.0841.140
5221.81284.996315.468609.0881.200
6224.15283.274315.468609.0881.220
7226.46981.600315.468609.0881.240
8228.75879.993315.468609.0881.280
9231.02978.420315.468609.0881.280
10201.99083.884287.731506.6971.120
11204.31382.189287.731506.6971.140
12203.56680.535287.731506.6971.180
13217.51485.335312.115596.2081.180
14219.85885.335312.115596.2081.200
15224.47385.335312.115596.2081.240
16226.74685.335312.115596.2081.260
17212.92777.430335.28680.6621.150
18209.51080.237335.28680.6621.120
19208.35881.172335.28680.6621.110
20207.19982.122335.28680.6621.100
21204.85984.115335.28680.6621.080
22191.85085.850302.36487.7831.040
23194.25283.925302.36487.7831.060
24196.62382.054302.36487.7831.080
25198.97080.250302.36487.7831.100
26201.29278.515302.36487.7831.120
27199.31785.199304.80545.2831.080
28201.71083.355304.80545.2831.100
29204.07583.532304.80545.2831.120
30205.24980.698304.80545.2831.300
31207.57478.990304.80545.2831.500
32289.43083.721333.14563.4511.460
33290.71282.338333.14563.4511.470
34291.97780.996333.14563.4511.480
35294.49480.332333.14563.4511.490
36295.74779.681333.14563.4511.490
37300.74985.294289.56525.7730.840
38149.50182.908289.56525.7730.850
39150.64781.755289.56525.7730.860
40151.78180.630289.56525.7730.870
41152.91279.532289.56525.7730.880
42360.85578.651320.04639.2012.000
43357.49380.250320.04639.2011.970
44355.23281.294320.04639.2011.950
45349.51483.965320.04639.2011.900
46232.59684.670327.05654.6301.240
47234.72382.962327.05654.6301.260
48237.23181.308327.05654.6301.280
49239.52079.952327.05654.6301.300
50213.18083.898298.70540.2611.180
51215.49382.216298.70540.2611.200
52216.40881.389298.70540.2611.210
53217.83180.589298.70540.2611.220
54218.84679.790298.70540.2611.230
55734.56879.518280.41504.52722.000
56735.17780.006280.41504.52722.070
57736.70180.983280.41504.52722.210
58738.22582.027280.41504.52722.360
59110.53276.644315.46842.33687.000
60110.95978.407315.46842.33688.000
61111.38680.196315.46842.33689.000
62111.80982.013315.46842.33690.000
63208.56277.851302.361563.1941.180
64205.17380.373302.361563.1941.160
65204.03081.240302.361563.1941.140
66199.39784.847302.361563.1941.100
67202.52786.758302.361563.1941.080

Table 6. Data ~ above Trajectory Parameters that Fired Jacketed PortionsTest No.Distance that Jacketed portions Traveled (meter)Minimum energy Required because that Lethal (joules)Remaining Velocity (m/sec)Remaining power (joules)Time of flight (seconds)
1148.11179.993280.41676.12958.859
2148.13280.156280.41676.12958.859
3148.25481.023280.41676.12958.859
4142.20181.322280.41676.12958.859
5111.24279.586315.46842.33688.660
6111.36480.115315.46842.33688.950
7111.43180.400315.46842.33689.110
8111.62381.213315.46842.33689.560
9182.33480.006287.73176.12960.39
10182.48080.820287.73176.12960.48
11182.57281.355287.73176.12960.68
12182.59981.525287.73176.12960.13
13151.45579.451312.11590.20260.000
14151.58680.006312.11590.20260.210
15151.74180.671312.11590.20260.460
16151.83681.070312.11590.20260.610
17151.89081.322312.11590.20260.700
18152.05282.013312.11590.20260.960
19178.55180.006335.280117.29156.700
20178.61280.373335.280117.29156.830
21178.64080.549335.28117.29156.890
2295.23480.020302.36139.80987.860
2395.28080.644302.36139.80988.199
2495.33581.335302.36139.80988.599
2595.42981.484302.36139.80989.279
26150.15679.993304.80067.01968.210
27150.19680.278304.80067.01968.310
28150.21180.386304.80067.01968.350
29150.34281.362304.80067.01968.790
30239.78380.047333.146100.60960.840
31240.16480.942333.146100.60961.180
32240.34381.376333.146100.60961.340
33241.08083.125333.146100.60962.000
34251.45680.481289.56081.17259.000
35252.64883.233289.560100.60160.000
36153.00080.210320.04043.57189.000
37153.31480.644320.04043.57189.260
38153.61981.335320.04043.57189.640
39153.89682.027320.04043.57190.000
40100.13279.999327.05099.05460.280
41100.53581.322327.05099.05460.740
42100.69982.027327.05099.05460.000
43147.88779.999298.70482.65860.200
44147.39880.942298.70482.65860.540
45147.53881.376298.70482.65860.700
46147.78282.122298.70482.65861.000
47139.48878.395280.416504.5271.180
48198.22380.522280.416504.5271.160
49195.97782.094280.416504.5271.140
50192.56384.806280.416504.5271.110
51188.01278.664315.460633.54718.080
52189.21080.020315.460633.54718.340
53189.93980.861315.460633.54718.500
54190.30181.294315.460633.54718.580
55191.35082.582315.460633.54718.820
56112.74877.946302.361563.19423.000
57121.09078.624302.361563.19423.100
58121.13979.301302.361563.19423.210
59121.31979.993302.361563.19423.300
60121.53281.294302.361563.19423.490

Figure 1: shooting Arrangement (Click come see larger image)