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In this page, I discuss a curious collection of unusual words: adjectives and nouns because that numerical worths or multiples. What carry out you speak to a team of eleven musicians? An strong competition with 6 events? an event that recurs every twenty years? It have the right to be very daunting to figure out what type of prefix to use, and there space plenty of exceptions to the rules. Due to the fact that many of these words aren"t found in dictionaries (particularly together the relevant numbers acquire larger), having actually some general ethics can help. Thus, where various other word list of the keolistravelservices.com are simply noted in "word: definition" form, this web page will shot to display you, in tabular format, just how to construct your very own terms native the simple principles, and also to provide you a better grasp that this tricky topic. Let"s begin!

In general, these words space made by combine a prefix derived from Latin or Greek number words and a suffix describe the kind or group of the thing being counted. If you recognize a many word etymologies, you can usually number out even if it is a word takes a Latin or Greek number prefix if you have the right to tell even if it is the suffix you desire to usage is Latin or Greek in origin. However, if you can"t occupational out the etymology, it"s probably ideal to just look in ~ the lists below, which show which prefixes are provided with i beg your pardon suffixes. Besides, there room exceptions to this basic rule.

You are watching: Greek and latin prefixes for numbers


Latin prefixes (uni, bi, tri ...) are generally used for the adhering to categories.
mathematical bases "-al"adjectives of relationship "-nary"groups of musician "-tet"words because that multiples of other "-uple"number of years in between two events "-ennial"number of sides of miscellaneous "-lateral"words for huge numbers / exponents "-illion"less typical categories: variety of leaflets or petals ~ above a leaf or flower "-foliate", chemistry valencies "-valent"; department into components "-partite" or "-fid".

In this very first table, I"ve detailed the Latin words for 1 with 12 together with the appropriate prefix the is acquired from it. Because that each the the above categories, check the ideal column and find the word list. In instances where the word couldn"t be uncovered in consistent dictionaries, I"ve extrapolation from the various other words and also used ideal prefixes and also endings to build the exactly form. In such theoretical cases, words is marked with one asterisk and also put the in italics.

Table 1: Latin-Prefixed number WordsNumeralPrefixBaseRelationMusicMultipleYearlySidesExponent1unusuniN/Aunary(solo)(single)(annual)unilateral(million)2duobi/duobinalbinaryduetduple/doublebiennialbilateralbillion3tres, triatritrial, tertialtrinary, ternarytriotriple/trebletriennialtrilateraltrillion4quattuorquadri/quartquartalquaternaryquartetquadruplequadriennialquadrilateralquadrillion5quinquequinque/quintquintalquinary,quinquenaryquintetquintuplequinquennialquinquelateralquintillion6sexsex(t), sesextalsenary/sexenarysextetsextuplesexennial*sexilateralsextillion7septemseptseptimalseptenaryseptetseptupleseptennialseptilateralseptillion8octooctoctal, octavaloctonaryoctetoctupleoctennialoctilateraloctillion9novemnonus/novemnonalnonarynonetnonuple,noncuplenovennial*nonilateralnonillion10decemdec(a), dedecimaldenarydectetdecupledecennial*decilateraldecillion11undecimundec, undeundecimalundenary*undectet*undecupleundecennial*undecilateralundecillion12duodecimduodec, duodeduodecimalduodenary*duodectetduodecupleduodecennial*duodecilateralduodecillion

So far, so good. We have the right to see that there room a couple of exceptions come the general rule, particularly for the numbers 1 and 2, and also in some instances such as "quinary / quinquenary" where multiple forms exist. Due to the fact that I"m no being hardline around "proper" forms, I"m including all the develops normally used, even when lock don"t strictly follow the rules. Up to 12, the Latin prefixes organize up pretty well; most of the develops exist; just "sexilateral", of every the hypotheticals, is much less than nine. My concept is the it sounds also lewd to have actually been embraced as the term for something with 6 sides. Well enough, then.


number of angle of plane figures "-gon"number of deals with of solid figures "-hedron"number of angles in a form or line "-angle"number of rulers in a government "-archy"number of meters in a poetic verse"-meter"number that objects in a group "-ad"number of events in an strong competition "-athlon"less typical categories: numbers of rate in native "-syllabic"; to adjust of publications or other works "-logy"; number of fingers "-dactylic"; variety of languages talked "-glot"; number of parts "-merous"; number of columns "-style"; lot of carbon in numerous chemical molecules "-ane", "-ene", "-yne".
And now, Table 2 shows us the Greek character words and prefixes in conjunction with the suitable suffixes for the above categories.
Table 2: Greek-Prefixed number WordsNumeralPrefixPolygonPolyhedronAngleRulerMeterGroupEvent1enmonoN/AN/AN/AmonarchN/AmonadN/A2dyo/duo/didi/dyN/AN/AN/Adiarch, dyarchdimeterdyadbiathlon3treis, triatritriangleN/Atriangletriarchtrimetertriadtriathlon4tesseratetratetragontetrahedronquadrangletetrarchtetrametertetradtetrathlon5pentepentapentagonpentahedronpentanglepentarchpentameterpentadpentathlon6hexahexhexagonhexahedronhexanglehexarchhexameterhexad*hexathlon7heptaheptheptagonheptahedronheptangleheptarchheptameterheptadheptathlon8oktooctoctagonoctohedronoctangleoctarchoctameteroctad*octathlon9enneaenneaenneagon,nonagonenneahedron*enneangle*ennearch*enneameterennead*enneathlon10dekadec(a)decagondecahedrondecangledecarchdecameterdecad(e)decathlon11hendekahendec(a)hendecagon,undecagonhendecahedron*hendecanglehendecarch*hendecameter*hendecad*hendecathlon12dodekadodec(a)dodecagondodecahedron*dodecangledodecarch*dodecameterdodecad(e)*dodecathlon

The situation with the Greek state is a small more complicated than with the Latin, however not excessively so. Latin prefixes are provided for part words because that polygons, back the Greek prefix is to be preferred. "Biathlon" should, by all rights, be "diathlon", "triangle" is used for a plane figure and also angles (instead the "triagon"), and also there room very couple of terms because that 1 and 2. Of course, this is partly due to the fact that there"s no such thing as a two-faced polyhedron, and not much point in relenten a single athletic event as a "monathlon" ...

So far, we"ve stuck to the number 1 v 12. We have actually pretty heavy sequences the words, although the words relating come 9 and 11 are, to it is in fair, extremely rare. However moving to the teens, decades, 100 and also 1000, the words end up being much much more sparse. Still, offered the appropriate adjectives and also a tiny creativity, we have the right to construct countless hypothetical native that must be understandable. Table 3 list the higher Latin numbers and prefixes. I"ll stick to listing the number bases and also adjectives the relation, and let you figure out the remainder on your own, top top the pattern defined above. Many of the various other terms aren"t found in dictionaries (how regularly do you need to describe something that recurs every 60 years?), with the exemption of those for 20, where terms choose vicennial and vigintillion are sometimes used. To wit:

Table 3: Latin number Words: 13 come 1000NumeralPrefixBaseRelation13tredecimtredec, tridec*tridecimal*tridenary14quattuordecimquatuordec*quatuordecimal*quatuordenary15quindecimquinde(c)*quindecimalquindenary16sedecimsede(c)hexadecimal*sedenary17septendecimseptende(c)septendecimal*septendenary18duodevigintidecennoct*decennoctal*decenoctonary19undevigintidecennovdecennoval*decennonary20vigintivige, vicevigesimal, vicesimalvigenary, vicenary30trigintatrige, tricetrigesimaltricenary40quadragintaquadragequadragesimalquadragenary50quinquagintaquinquagequinquagesimalquinquagenary60sexagintasexagesexagesimalsexagenary70septuagintaseptuageseptuagesimalseptuagenary80octogintaoctageoctagesimaloctogenary90nonagintanonagenonagesimalnonagenary100centumcentecentesimalcentenary1000millemillemillesimalmillenary

Now, things gain complicated. For the teens, things space made facility by the truth that rather of "duodeviginti" (literally "two-from-twenty") and "undeviginti" ("one-from-twenty") for 18 and 19, the prefixes for them space "decennoct" (ten-eight) and "decennov" (ten-nine). And, what"s this? Hexadecimal, not "sexadecimal"? "Hex-" is Greek, i beg your pardon goes versus the rule collection for every the various other bases. I suspect, again, that prudishness has led to "hexadecimal" obtaining the nod end "sexadecimal". Actually, various other than "hexadecimal", all these words because that 13 through 19 are very rare come non-existent, for this reason it could be ideal to just forget around them. Moving on come the decades, most of this are additionally quite rare. However, plenty of nouns exist, acquired from the ideal adjectives the relation, which determine a person of a particular age; "octogenary" i do not care "octogenarian" - who in their eighties.

For the greater Greek numbers, there"s virtually no proof in English for the usage of these words, but mathematicians sometimes need words for polygons and also solid figures, so right here are the proper prefixes and words for 13-20, 100 and 1000.

Table 4: Greek number Words: 13 come 1000NumeralPrefixPolygonPolyhedron13tr(e)iskaidekatriskaideca, tridecatriskaidecagon, trisdecagontriskaidecahedron14tettares kai dekatetrakaideca, tetradecatetradecagon, tetrakaidecagontetrakaidecahedron15pentekaidekapendecapendecagonpendecahedron16hekkaidekahexadeca*hexadecagon*hexadecahedron17heptakaidekaheptadecaheptadecagon*heptadecahedron18oktokaidekaoctodeca*octodecagon*octodecahedron19enneakaidekaenneadeca*enneadecagon*enneadecahedron20eikosiicos(a)icosagonicosahedron100hekatonhecato*hecatogonhecatohedron1000chilioichiliachiliagonchiliahedron

The ancient Greek teenagers all save the connect kai "and", but except because that 13 and also 14, the prefixes used in English typically omit it. Every one of the words in Table 4 are really rare (if lock are discovered at all), except for icosahedron. Note that in modern Greek, the numerals because that the teenagers are different than the ancient forms, reversing triskaideka to dekatreis, tettares kai deka to dekatettares, and also so on.

Curiosities

Now the I"ve outlined some of the straightforward features and rules to allow you to build your own numerical indigenous on the communication of those outlined here, I"ve compiled a triskaidecad of unusual facts and also trivia relating to this an extremely interesting topic.

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The five perfectly constant solid figures are the tetrahedron, hexahedron, octohedron, dodecahedron and icosahedron (4, 6, 8, 12 and 20 sides, respectively). This five, along with the decahedron (10 sides), are the forms of the dice most generally used in role-playing games. However, the triacontahedron (30-sided die) is sometimes used, and I"ve additionally seen a heptahedron (7-sided die). There"s even a 100-sided die, or hecatohedron, despite it go by the trademarked name of Zocchihedron after ~ its inventor. It has actually so plenty of sides the it"s basically a sphere, which way that it has actually the annoying propensity to role off level surfaces.The hatchet decennoval (of or pertaining come 19), though currently quite obsolete, was, of all the "teen" words, rather an ext common in previously times. The reason for this is that, as soon as calculating the date of Easter (a important and also controversial task of medieval clergy), one uses the Metonic bicycle - the truth that the moon"s phases will recur top top the same days every 19 years.English has two entirely unique words to describe the id of part Christians that the Apocalypse will come at or roughly the millennium (an essential thing to keep in mind in ~ this point in history). The first is millenarian, obtained from the Latin millenarius (of a thousand), and also closely pertained to millenary shown in Table 3. The 2nd is chiliastic, taken indigenous the Greek word for 1000, as defined in Table 4. Regardless of their different etymologies, millenarian and also chiliastic are essentially synonymous. Because that an unexplained poem I"ve written on the topic, inspect out this page.You may have noticed a resemblance between the indigenous duodenary (relating to twelve) and also the duodenum (a portion of the tiny intestine). This is not a coincidence; the duodenum was originally recognized as the intestinum duodenum digitorum "intestine the twelve fingers", due to the fact that it was viewed to be around twelve fingersbreadth in length by the medieval anatomists who named it in the 14th century if mucking around with corpses.It is curious that, although native exist for world in their forties (quadragenarian) through one hundreds (centenarian), we need to construct words because that those in their twenties and thirties (vicenarian and tricenarian, respectively). This sample is fairly the opposite than that for many of these series of words, where there room words because that lower but not for greater numbers. Probably, this is since these terms are words that respect, and it"s no an excellent feat to with 20 or 30. A rapid look on search engines will display that quadragenarian is the rarest of this terms, v word frequency boosting up to octogenarian, then decreasing thereafter. This most likely reflects the increased esteem accorded to those approximately their eighties, however then, life expectancies gift what castle are, a decrease in frequency because that nonagenarian and also centenarian because couple of people with such good ages.The biggest musical grouping I can find come which a "-tet" name is assigned is a "brass duodectet" arrangement of Gabrieli"s Canzon Noni Toni in Twelve Voices. Since this is the only location where the word"s ever been used (to mine knowledge), it hasn"t shown up in any kind of dictionaries yet. Incidentally, the smallest number of players forced for a jazz band to "officially" qualify as a "big band" is 10, or a dectet. However, i don"t think there is a bureau of large Band Nomenclature to clamp under on hurt of this dominion ...In enhancement to "centennial" and "millennial", normally used for the 100th and also 1000th anniversaries the events, one may include the series of Latin prefixes for 2 with 9 above to either word to indicate 200th with 900th (or, much more rarely, 2000th with 9000th) anniversaries. But some world can"t wait 100 year to celebrate. In north America in the late 19th century, when numerous cities, churches, etc., were over 100 years old however not yet 200, the term sesquicentennial (150th anniversary) to be coined (from Latin sesqui-, of the proportion of 3 to 2). Even fifty years to be too lengthy for the city of Delavan, Tazewell County, Illinois, whose leaders consulted Funk and Wagnall"s in 1962 because that a word for a 125th anniversary, and also were told the quasquicentennial, one irregular development from Latin quadrans, one-quarter, might do, yet that it wouldn"t gain into the dictionary until it became much more regular. It"s currently in the Oxford English Dictionary, and has been used quite a couple of times since, greatly in the American Midwest.Many Christian church celebrate a collection of yearly events: Septuagesima, Sexagesima, Quinquagesima and also Quadragesima, on the successive Sundays approximately 70, 60, 50 and also 40 days prior to Easter, respectively. Quadragesima point out the start of Lent, i beg your pardon lasts forty days.Much the English poetic literature prior to the modern-day era was created in iambic pentameter, in which every line that verse contains five to adjust of "short-long" syllables. Friend will have no doubt encountered iambic pentameter, because both Chaucer"s Canterbury Tales and also most of Shakespeare"s output is written in this meter.While we normally think that English numbers together purely decimal (and this is absolutely true of our positional digital numbers), in reality the situation is more complex. For many people, the series (thousand, million, billion, sunshine ...) proceeds in multiples of 1000; the is, there are special words for exponents of 1000 simply as there room for index number of 10 (ten, hundred, thousand), however not because that 10000 or 100000. Thus, we might properly say that our numerals have actually both a decimal and also a millesimal (or possibly millenary) base. The case is more complicated because, traditionally, the British say "milliard" for 109 wherein Americans say "billion", "billion" because that 1012 where Americans say "trillion", and also "trillion" because that 1018 wherein Americans say "quintillion". This mechanism is decimal, millesimal (because there room special words because that 1000 and also 1,000,000) and millimillesimal (if I have the right to coin a word for a base of 1,000,000). Fortunately, the brothers seem to be relocating towards the intake preferred in most of the rest of the world. Ns say "fortunately", not since I have any an excellent love that American influence, but since in this case, the simplifies the mechanism greatly.If anyone cares, "centesimal" is an anagram of "lemniscate", a mathematics term introduce to the locus of the foot of the perpendicular native the facility of a conic ~ above the tangent. If you recognize what the means, you may be impressed the it has actually a number anagram.One that the many peculiar numeral words in English is "zenzizenzizenzic", which way "the eighth strength of a number", as in "The zenzizenzizenzic the 2 is 256". The was offered only when in English, in Robert Recorde"s The Whetstone the Wit (1557). That is acquired from one equally-obsolete "zenzic", which described the square of a number. That is the just English word with six Zs, and is thus, if I may be allowed to coin a term, hexazetic.I would certainly be remiss if i didn"t point out one the the most typical phobias in the western world, triskaidekaphobia, the are afraid of the number 13. It"s additionally spelled "triskaidecaphobia", mirroring the tendency in Greek number prefixes to change the letter k to c.

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