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Along through the evil President, the President"s room members are his most vital advisors. This snapshot shows chairman Reagan, Vice chairman Bush, and also Cabinet members in the Oval Office.

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Even the specialists can"t agree top top the total number of federal government agencies, commissions, and also departments.

Most approximates suggest there are probably an ext than 2,000 of these. They each have an area of field of expertise — some much wider than others — however their duties often overlap, do administration more difficult. To complicate things even more, many agencies have actually counterparts in ~ the state and local level. That is size, complexity, and overlapping responsibilities leave the federal bureaucracy open to continuous attempts come reorganize and streamline.

Congress has the power to create, organize, and disband all commonwealth agencies. Most of them space under the control of the President, although couple of of them actually have direct contact with the White House. So, the administration has 2 masters — Congress and also the President. The administration generally drops into four wide types: room departments, government corporations, independent agencies, and also regulatory commissions


Cabinet departments
department of State Treasury room Department the Defense department of Justice room of the internal Department of agriculture Department of commerce Department of labor Department of transportation Department that Housing and Urban development Department that Health and Human services Department of energy Department of education and learning Department the Veterans AffairsDepartment of landscape Security

The cabinet Departments

The 15 cabinet departments space each top by a Secretary who sits ~ above the President"s Cabinet. The exemption is the righteousness Department, i beg your pardon is top by the attorney General, who is likewise a member of the President"s Cabinet. The Secretaries space responsible for directing the department"s policy and also for overseeing the operation. Cabinet secretaries room usually torn in between their duties as presidential advisers and also heads of your departments.


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As the very first woman room member, Frances Perkins offered for 12 years, helping draft law such as the Social security Act and the very first federal minimum wage laws.

Each has actually a one-of-a-kind area that policy, although their obligations are still an extremely broad. The organization of each is rather complex, yet they have some points in common. All Secretaries have actually a Deputy or Undersecretary, and also a organize of Assistant Secretaries, that all direct significant programs in ~ the department.

Most departments are separated into bureaus, divisions, and also sections. For example, the FBI lies in ~ the domain of the justice Department, and the an enig Service is at this time within the Treasury Departmeny agency, however soon to be relocated under the auspices of the department of Homeland security .

Government Corporations

Government corporations perform not belong to any department — they was standing on their own. Probably the best-known federal government corporations are the United says Postal Service and Amtrak. Lock are different from various other agencies in the they room businesses developed by Congress, and also they fee fees for their services. Like any other business, federal government corporations have actually private vain — together as commonwealth Express and also United Parcel organization — and also sometimes state compete — such as the new Jersey Transit Authority.


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At the moment of its creation, NASA to be assumed by plenty of to it is in a defense-related agency. Today, it brings countries together in extremely publicized initiatives like the International an are Station displayed here.

Independent Agencies

Independent agencies very closely resemble cabinet departments, yet they space smaller and less complex. Generally, they have narrower locations of obligation than do Cabinet departments. Most of these agencies space not cost-free from presidential control and also are independent just in the sense that they space not component of a department.

Congress create them as separate agencies for countless reasons, practical and symbolic. For example, as soon as the nationwide Aeronautics and space Administration (NASA) was established, countless members of congress assumed that it would certainly be a component of the department of Defense. However, the is one independent company because the room program has plenty of other purposes than the defense the the nation.


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The ATF (now the office of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and also Explosives) was transferred from the room of the Treasury to the room of justice in 2006.

Regulatory Agencies

These agencies regulate important parts of the economy, making rule for big industries and also businesses that influence the understanding of the public. Because regulatory commissions space "watchdogs" that by their an extremely nature have to operate independently, they room not component of a department, and the president does no directly manage most that them. Every commission has from 5 to 11 members appointed through the President, yet the president cannot remove them because that the size of their terms in office.

Examples of this commissions room the Securities and also Exchange Commission, i beg your pardon regulates the stock market, brokers, and also investment practices. One more well-known the supervisory board is the federal Reserve Board that governs the nation"s financial policy. The eco-friendly Protection company serves together a guardian over the nation"s environment, making and enforcing criter for the industrial and commercial sectors.

With over 2,000 various agencies, the federal bureaucracy is almost particular to run into problems with organization, overlapping responsibilities, and also efficiency. Nearly every recent President has come into office determined to refashion and trim the bureaucracy. However, none has been able come make much more than boy adjustments. Well-established agencies have actually lives of their own, and are an overwhelming to change. Besides, the nation has large, complex, needs requiring unique attention. A large bureaucracy is a part of the government"s attempt to meet those needs.


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NASA Homepage
The nationwide Aeronautics and room Administration, according to its website, is an invest in America"s future. Discover this significant website, indigenous its pages on space flight to women in NASA. Click "other cool sites" for more neat stuff 보다 you could visit in one day. Don"t miss out top top the speed movie of NASA"s vision or the webcasts, which can be perceived on home windows Media Player.

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The federal Deposit insurance Corporation (FDIC)
What happens if your financial institution goes bankrupt? You acquire your money back — if your bank is insured through the commonwealth Deposit insurance money Corporation. Because 1933, the FDIC has been keeping America"s faith in the financial institutions alive. Take a look in ~ the organization and also browse its official website here.

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U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Homer Simpson makes the meltdown that a atom reactor in a strength plant it seems to be ~ funny, but in fact it can cause an international devastation. The nuclear Regulatory commission is responsible because that making certain that strength plants are safe from the time they are built to the time that they space shut down. Take a look at what they do at their official website.

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The Securities and also Exchange Commission
The stock market crash the 1929 crippled the U.S. Economy and devastated the lives of countless Americans. What did the federal government do to make certain that something prefer that never happens again? They founded the Securities and Exchange Commission, which monitor investment techniques of American businesses. If you have an interest in the stock market, it"s worth your time to wade v this main website.

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Federal trade Commission
You"ve watched the board game Monopoly, yet did you know that genuine monopolies space usually illegal? The Federal profession Commission renders sure that service providers follow the law, usage fair company practices, and don"t cheat the consumer. They also protect consumer by investigate complaints and also educating us about what to look out for. The FTC"s main website provides for an amazing read because that anyone who could do organization in the U.S.
Consumer Protection
Are you gaining your money"s worth? check here prior to you make a purchase to discover out just how you can be hoodwinked if girlfriend aren"t careful.
DefenseLink — The U.S. Department of Defense
With the Army, air Force, naval Corps, and the navy under the auspices, the room of Defense is the component of the federal government assigned to maintaining national security. Its main website has pages top top such threats to the U.S. As weapons of massive destruction and anthrax, and also online memorials come fallen soldiers, Olympic coverage, and much more.
Joint Chiefs of Staff
The head honchos that each army branch make up the joint Chiefs the Staff, who advise the president on military matters. Uncover out around the composition and also philosophy the the company here.
The United says Department that Justice
Attorney basic Janet Reno and also her office are responsible for finding and also prosecuting federal criminals. The official Department of justice website is full of interesting information, including the FBI"s most wanted list and pages on warm topics from school violence to the fatality penalty.

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U.S. State Department
Even though only 1% that the national spending plan goes to international affairs, the State room does several of the many publicized government-related job-related in the country. The same company that represents the U.S. In the United nations is responsible for negotiating profession agreements and additionally issuing passports and visas. Take it a look at at few of the State Department"s recent jobs at their main website.

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United claims Treasury Department
Show me the money! The U.S. Treasury room monitors the government"s bank accounts, prints money, and also investigates tax evasion, amongst many various other duties. Find out the answers come all her questions about one of the oldest workplaces in the U.S. Federal government at their main website.

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