6.4 Ionic bonding (ESABW)

The nature that the ionic shortcut (ESABX)

When electrons are transferred native one atom to another it is called ionic bonding.

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Electronegativity is a home of an atom, describing how strongly it attracts or holds onto electrons. Ionic bonding takes place when the distinction in electronegativity between the 2 atoms is more than \(\text1,7\). This commonly happens when a steel atom bonds with a non-metal atom. When the distinction in electronegativity is large, one atom will tempt the shared electron pair much more strongly than the other, bring about electrons to be transferred to the atom with higher electronegativity. As soon as ionic bond form, a metal donates one or an ext electrons, as result of having a short electronegativity, to type a confident ion or cation. The non-metal atom has a high electronegativity, and also therefore easily gains electrons to type a an adverse ion or anion. The two ions room then attracted to each various other by electrostatic forces.

Ionic shortcut

An ionic shortcut is a kind of chemistry bond where one or much more electrons space transferred from one atom to another.

Example 1:

In the situation of \(\textNaCl\), the difference in electronegativity between \(\textNa\) (\(\text0,93\)) and \(\textCl\) (\(\text3,16\)) is \(\text2,1\). Sodium has actually only one valence electron, if chlorine has seven. Due to the fact that the electronegativity of chlorine is higher than the electronegativity of sodium, chlorine will entice the valence electron the the salt atom an extremely strongly. This electron from sodium is moved to chlorine. Salt loses an electron and forms one \(\textNa^+\) ion.


Chlorine benefit an electron and forms a \(\textCl^-\) ion.


Chlorine is a diatomic molecule and so for it come take part in ionic bonding, the must an initial break up into two atom of chlorine. Salt is part of a metallic lattice and also the individual atoms must an initial break far from the lattice.

The electron is thus transferred from sodium to chlorine:


Figure 6.1: Ionic bonding in salt chloride

The well balanced equation because that the reaction is:

\<2\textNa + \textCl_2 \rightarrow 2\textNaCl\>

Example 2:

Another instance of ionic bonding takes place in between magnesium \((\textMg)\) and also oxygen \((\textO_2)\) to form magnesium oxide \((\textMgO)\). Magnesium has actually two valence electrons and an electronegativity that \(\text1,31\), if oxygen has actually six valence electrons and also an electronegativity that \(\text3,44\). Since oxygen has actually a greater electronegativity, it attracts the 2 valence electrons from the magnesium atom and also these electrons room transferred from the magnesium atom come the oxygen atom. Magnesium loses 2 electrons to kind \(\textMg^2+\), and oxygen gains 2 electrons to type \(\textO^2-\). The attractive force in between the oppositely charged ions is what stop the compound together.

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The balanced equation for the reaction is:

\<2\textMg + \textO_2 \rightarrow 2\textMgO\>

Because oxygen is a diatomic molecule, 2 magnesium atoms will be necessary to incorporate with one oxygen molecule (which has actually two oxygen atoms) to develop two systems of magnesium oxide \((\textMgO)\).

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The crystal lattice framework of ionic compounds (ESABY)

Ionic substances room actually a mix of numerous ions bonded together into a huge molecule. The arrangement of ion in a regular, geometric structure is called a crystal lattice. Therefore in truth \(\textNaCl\) does no contain one \(\textNa\) and also one \(\textCl\) ion, however rather a most these two ions arranged in a crystal lattice where the ratio of \(\textNa\) come \(\textCl\) ions is 1:1. The framework of the crystal lattice is shown below.


Figure 6.2: The decision lattice plan in \(\textNaCl\)


Figure 6.3: A room filling model of the sodium chloride lattice

Properties the ionic compounds (ESABZ)

Ionic compounds have a variety of properties:

Ions room arranged in a lattice structure

Ionic solids space crystalline in ~ room temperature

The ionic link is a solid electrostatic attraction. This method that ionic link are often hard and also have high melting and boiling points

Ionic compounds room brittle and bonds are broken along planes as soon as the link is put under press (stressed)