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Different zebra mussel manage technologies through their benefits and disadvantages.Traditional approaches for handling zebra mussels

Traditional manage methods include:

Chemical. Oxidizing chemistry such together chlorine, bromine, potassium permanganate and also ozone are provided extensively, through the aid of injectors in pipeline systems. This requires constant application.

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Thermal. 35ºC for two hrs results in ~100% removed efficiency. Requirements to be repeated two or 3 times a year.

Mechanical. Pipe pigging, scraping, high pressure hose and sand blasting.

Non-traditional approaches for managing zebra mussels

Non-traditional techniques include:

Foul relax coating. Silicone coated grating and also pipes have actually been discovered to be ~80% effective in minimizing zebra mussel attachment in both static and dynamic systems. Assorted coatings were investigated in a examine by the U.S. Room of the Interior, bureau of Reclamation. Encourage coating materials include silicone FR #5 (Bioclean White) and bronze. Although silicone is highly reliable in managing attachment, the soft coating provides it breakable to abrasion.

The efficiency of this method depends top top site-specific conditions, such as flow rate, lot of floating debris, etc.

short frequency magnetism. Research by Ener-Tec Inc. Has actually proven the success of extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetism in staying clear of shell development in zebra mussels, causing effective control of colonization (Ener-Tec Inc., 2015). The straight kinetic cabinet (LKC) device designed through Ener-Tec introduce a weak electric present into the water.

This reasons rapid calcium loss in mussels, top to fatality by exposure. This system may be supplied in 0.0127 m come 6 m diameter pipes. That is installed directly into the water line and requires electrical connections. The benefit of the LKC mechanism is that it does no produce any kind of chemicals and does not require consistent monitoring.

Another similar control device, Patent united state 5476595 A, provides a mix of current and also air bubbles to achieve the same an outcome (Baddour et al., 1995). Present is supplied in between electrodes that prolong radially in ~ equiangular positions about a cylindrical water inlet. Bubbles are formed by an annular air room of the water intake below the cylindrical inlet. The bubbles allow free-swimming microscope zebra mussel larvae (veligers) to continue to be suspended in the electrical field because that a longer period of time. This outcomes in higher removal efficiency.

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This control machine works well through vertical bellmouth intake pipes, such as those offered by great Lakes water plants

Pulse acoustics. The operation principle behind acoustic technology is that the vibrations reason stress and an outcome in immobilization that veligers (Legg et al. 2015). Solid-borne sound at sonic frequencies has been found to be efficient in staying clear of attachment of youth mussels in a pipeline section. In the 8 – 10 kHz range, through acceleration that vibration to about 150 m/sec2, almost 100% regulate may be achieved.